University of Chicago | Wikipedia audio article

University of Chicago | Wikipedia audio article

August 27, 2019 0 By Stanley Isaacs


The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of
C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois. The university
is composed of an undergraduate college, various graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees
organized into five academic research divisions and seven professional schools. Beyond the
arts and sciences, Chicago is also well known for its professional schools, which include
the Pritzker School of Medicine, the Booth School of Business, the Law School, the School
of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy Studies, the Divinity
School and the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies. The university
currently enrolls 5,971 undergraduate students and 16,016 students overall.University of
Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines,
including sociology, law, economics, literary criticism, religion and the behavioralism
school of political science. Chicago’s physics department and the Met Lab helped develop
the world’s first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction (Chicago Pile-1) beneath
the viewing stands of university’s Stagg Field, a key part of the classified Manhattan Project
effort of World War II. The university research efforts include administration of Fermi National
Accelerator Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory, as well as the Marine Biological
Laboratory. The university is also home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest
university press in the United States. With an estimated completion date of 2021, the
Barack Obama Presidential Center will be housed at the university and include both the Obama
presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation.The University of Chicago has produced
many prominent alumni, faculty members and researchers. As of October 2018, 98 Nobel
laureates have been affiliated with the university as professors, students, faculty, or staff,
making it a university with one of the highest concentrations of Nobel laureates in the world.
Similarly, 34 faculty members and 17 alumni have been awarded the MacArthur “Genius Grant”.
In addition, Chicago’s alumni and faculty include 53 Rhodes Scholars, 25 Marshall Scholars,
9 Fields Medalists, 4 Turing Award Winners, 24 Pulitzer Prize winners, 20 National Humanities
Medalists, 16 billionaire graduates and a plethora of members of the United States Congress
and heads of state of countries all over the world. The school holds top-ten positions
in various national and international rankings.==History=====Early years===The University of Chicago was incorporated
as a coeducational institution in 1890 by the American Baptist Education Society, using
$400,000 donated to the ABES to match a $600,000 donation from Baptist oil magnate and philanthropist
John D. Rockefeller, and including land donated by Marshall Field. While the Rockefeller donation
provided money for academic operations and long-term endowment, it was stipulated that
such money could not be used for buildings. The Hyde Park campus was financed by donations
from wealthy Chicagoans like Silas B. Cobb who provided the funds for the campus’ first
building, Cobb Lecture Hall, and matched Marshall Field’s pledge of $100,000. Other early benefactors
included businessmen Charles L. Hutchinson (trustee, treasurer and donor of Hutchinson
Commons), Martin A. Ryerson (president of the board of trustees and donor of the Ryerson
Physical Laboratory) Adolphus Clay Bartlett and Leon Mandel, who funded the construction
of the gymnasium and assembly hall, and George C. Walker of the Walker Museum, a relative
of Cobb who encouraged his inaugural donation for facilities.The Hyde Park campus continued
the legacy of the original university of the same name, which had closed in 1880s after
its campus was foreclosed on. What became known as the Old University of Chicago had
been founded by a small group of Baptist educators in 1856 through a land endowment from Senator
Stephen A. Douglas. After a fire, it closed in 1886. Alumni from the Old University of
Chicago are recognized as alumni of the present University of Chicago. The university’s depiction
on its coat of arms of a phoenix rising from the ashes is a reference to the fire, foreclosure,
and demolition of the Old University of Chicago campus. As an homage to this pre-1890 legacy,
a single stone from the rubble of the original Douglas Hall on 34th Place was brought to
the current Hyde Park location and set into the wall of the Classics Building. These connections
have led the Dean of the College and University of Chicago and Professor of History John Boyer
to conclude that the University of Chicago has, “a plausible genealogy as a pre–Civil
War institution”.William Rainey Harper became the university’s president on July 1, 1891
and the Hyde Park campus opened for classes on October 1, 1892. Harper worked on building
up the faculty and in two years he had a faculty of 120, including eight former university
or college presidents. Harper was an accomplished scholar (Semiticist) and a member of the Baptist
clergy who believed that a great university should maintain the study of faith as a central
focus. To fulfill this commitment, he brought the Old University of Chicago’s Seminary to
Hyde Park. This became the Divinity School in 1891, the first professional school at
the University of Chicago.Harper recruited acclaimed Yale baseball and football player
Amos Alonzo Stagg from the Young Men’s Christian Association training Shool at Springfield
to coach the school’s football program. Stagg was given a position on the faculty, the first
such athletic position in the United States. While coaching at the University, Stagg invented
the numbered football jersey, the huddle, and the lighted playing field. Stagg is the
namesake of the university’s Stagg Field.The business school was founded thereafter in
1898 and the law school was founded in 1902. Harper died in 1906 and was replaced by a
succession of three presidents whose tenures lasted until 1929. During this period, the
Oriental Institute was founded to support and interpret archeological work in what was
then called the Near East.In the 1890s, the University of Chicago, fearful that its vast
resources would injure smaller schools by drawing away good students, affiliated with
several regional colleges and universities: Des Moines College, Kalamazoo College, Butler
University, and Stetson University. In 1896, the university affiliated with Shimer College
in Mount Carroll, Illinois. Under the terms of the affiliation, the schools were required
to have courses of study comparable to those at the university, to notify the university
early of any contemplated faculty appointments or dismissals, to make no faculty appointment
without the university’s approval, and to send copies of examinations for suggestions.
The University of Chicago agreed to confer a degree on any graduating senior from an
affiliated school who made a grade of A for all four years, and on any other graduate
who took twelve weeks additional study at the University of Chicago. A student or faculty
member of an affiliated school was entitled to free tuition at the University of Chicago,
and Chicago students were eligible to attend an affiliated school on the same terms and
receive credit for their work. The University of Chicago also agreed to provide affiliated
schools with books and scientific apparatus and supplies at cost; special instructors
and lecturers without cost except travel expenses; and a copy of every book and journal published
by the University of Chicago Press at no cost. The agreement provided that either party could
terminate the affiliation on proper notice. Several University of Chicago professors disliked
the program, as it involved uncompensated additional labor on their part, and they believed
it cheapened the academic reputation of the university. The program passed into history
by 1910.===1920s–1980s===
In 1929, the university’s fifth president, Robert Maynard Hutchins, took office; the
university underwent many changes during his 24-year tenure. Hutchins eliminated varsity
football from the university in an attempt to emphasize academics over athletics, instituted
the undergraduate college’s liberal-arts curriculum known as the Common Core, and organized the
university’s graduate work into four divisions. In 1933, Hutchins proposed an unsuccessful
plan to merge the University of Chicago and Northwestern University into a single university.
During his term, the University of Chicago Hospitals (now called the University of Chicago
Medical Center) finished construction and enrolled their first medical students. Also,
the Committee on Social Thought, an institution distinctive of the university, was created. Money that had been raised during the 1920s
and financial backing from the Rockefeller Foundation helped the school to survive through
the Great Depression. During World War II, the university made important contributions
to the Manhattan Project. The university was the site of the first isolation of plutonium
and of the creation of the first artificial, self-sustained nuclear reaction by Enrico
Fermi in 1942.It has been noted that the University of Chicago did not provide standard oversight
regarding Bruno Bettelheim and his tenure as director of the Orthogenic School for Disturbed
Children from 1944 to 1973.In the early 1950s, student applications declined as a result
of increasing crime and poverty in the Hyde Park neighborhood. In response, the university
became a major sponsor of a controversial urban renewal project for Hyde Park, which
profoundly affected both the neighborhood’s architecture and street plan. During this
period the university, like Shimer College and 10 others, adopted an early entrant program
that allowed very young students to attend college; in addition, students enrolled at
Shimer were enabled to transfer automatically to the University of Chicago after their second
year, having taken comparable or identical examinations and courses.
The university experienced its share of student unrest during the 1960s, beginning in 1962,
when then-freshman Bernie Sanders helped lead a 15-day sit-in at the college’s administration
building in a protest over the university’s off-campus rental policies. After continued
turmoil, a university committee in 1967 issued what became known as the Kalven Report. The
report, a two-page statement of the university’s policy in “social and political action,” declared
that “To perform its mission in the society, a university must sustain an extraordinary
environment of freedom of inquiry and maintain an independence from political fashions, passions,
and pressures.” The report has since been used to justify decisions such as the university’s
refusal to divest from South Africa in the 1980s and Darfur in the late 2000s.In 1969,
more than 400 students, angry about the dismissal of a popular professor, Marlene Dixon, occupied
the Administration Building for two weeks. After the sit-in ended, when Dixon turned
down a one-year reappointment, 42 students were expelled and 81 were suspended, the most
severe response to student occupations of any American university during the student
movement.In 1978, Hanna Holborn Gray, then the provost and acting president of Yale University,
became President of the University of Chicago, a position she held for 15 years.===1990s–2010s===In 1999, then-President Hugo Sonnenschein
announced plans to relax the university’s famed core curriculum, reducing the number
of required courses from 21 to 15. When The New York Times, The Economist, and other major
news outlets picked up this story, the university became the focal point of a national debate
on education. The changes were ultimately implemented, but the controversy played a
role in Sonnenschein’s decision to resign in 2000.From the mid-2000s, the university
began a number of multimillion-dollar expansion projects. In 2008, the University of Chicago
announced plans to establish the Milton Friedman Institute, which attracted both support and
controversy from faculty members and students. The institute will cost around $200 million
and occupy the buildings of the Chicago Theological Seminary. During the same year, investor David
G. Booth donated $300 million to the university’s Booth School of Business, which is the largest
gift in the university’s history and the largest gift ever to any business school. In 2009,
planning or construction on several new buildings, half of which cost $100 million or more, was
underway. Since 2011, major construction projects have included the Jules and Gwen Knapp Center
for Biomedical Discovery, a ten-story medical research center, and further additions to
the medical campus of the University of Chicago Medical Center. In 2014 the University launched
the public phase of a $4.5 billion fundraising campaign. In September 2015, the University
received $100 million from The Pearson Family Foundation to establish The Pearson Institute
for the Study and Resolution of Global Conflicts and The Pearson Global Forum at the Harris
School of Public Policy Studies.On May 1, 2014, the University of Chicago was named
one of fifty-five higher education institutions under investigation by the Office of Civil
Rights “for possible violations of federal law over the handling of sexual violence and
harassment complaints” by the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual
Assault.==Campus==The main campus of the University of Chicago
consists of 217 acres (87.8 ha) in the Chicago neighborhoods of Hyde Park and Woodlawn, approximately
eight miles (12 km) south of downtown Chicago. The northern and southern portions of campus
are separated by the Midway Plaisance, a large, linear park created for the 1893 World’s Columbian
Exposition. In 2011, Travel+Leisure listed the university as one of the most beautiful
college campuses in the United States. The first buildings of the University of Chicago
campus, which make up what is now known as the Main Quadrangles, were part of a master
plan conceived by two University of Chicago trustees and plotted by Chicago architect
Henry Ives Cobb. The Main Quadrangles consist of six quadrangles, each surrounded by buildings,
bordering one larger quadrangle. The buildings of the Main Quadrangles were designed by Cobb,
Shepley, Rutan and Coolidge, Holabird & Roche, and other architectural firms in a mixture
of the Victorian Gothic and Collegiate Gothic styles, patterned on the colleges of the University
of Oxford. (Mitchell Tower, for example, is modeled after Oxford’s Magdalen Tower, and
the university Commons, Hutchinson Hall, replicates Christ Church Hall.) In celebration of the
2018 Illinois Bicentennial, the University of Chicago Quadrangles were selected as one
of the Illinois 200 Great Places by the American Institute of Architects Illinois component
(AIA Illinois). After the 1940s, the Gothic style on campus
began to give way to modern styles. In 1955, Eero Saarinen was contracted to develop a
second master plan, which led to the construction of buildings both north and south of the Midway,
including the Laird Bell Law Quadrangle (a complex designed by Saarinen); a series of
arts buildings; a building designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe for the university’s School
of Social Service Administration, a building which is to become the home of the Harris
School of Public Policy Studies by Edward Durrell Stone, and the Regenstein Library,
the largest building on campus, a brutalist structure designed by Walter Netsch of the
Chicago firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill. Another master plan, designed in 1999 and updated
in 2004, produced the Gerald Ratner Athletics Center (2003), the Max Palevsky Residential
Commons (2001), South Campus Residence Hall and dining commons (2009), a new children’s
hospital, and other construction, expansions, and restorations. In 2011, the university
completed the glass dome-shaped Joe and Rika Mansueto Library, which provides a grand reading
room for the university library and prevents the need for an off-campus book depository.
The site of Chicago Pile-1 is a National Historic Landmark and is marked by the Henry Moore
sculpture Nuclear Energy. Robie House, a Frank Lloyd Wright building acquired by the university
in 1963, is also a National Historic Landmark, as is room 405 of the George Herbert Jones
Laboratory, where Glenn T. Seaborg and his team were the first to isolate plutonium.
Hitchcock Hall, an undergraduate dormitory, is on the National Register of Historic Places.
Campus of the University of Chicago===Satellite campuses===
The University of Chicago also maintains facilities apart from its main campus. The university’s
Booth School of Business maintains campuses in Hong Kong, London, and the downtown Streeterville
neighborhood of Chicago. The Center in Paris, a campus located on the left bank of the Seine
in Paris, hosts various undergraduate and graduate study programs. In fall 2010, the
University of Chicago also opened a center in Beijing, near Renmin University’s campus
in Haidian District. The most recent additions are a center in New Delhi, India, which opened
in 2014, and a center in Hong Kong which opened in 2015.==Administration and finances==The University of Chicago is governed by a
board of trustees. The Board of Trustees oversees the long-term development and plans of the
university and manages fundraising efforts, and is composed of 55 members including the
university President. Directly beneath the President are the Provost, fourteen Vice Presidents
(including the Chief Financial Officer, Chief Investment Officer, and Vice President for
Campus Life and Student Services), the Directors of Argonne National Laboratory and Fermilab,
the Secretary of the university, and the Student Ombudsperson. As of May 2016, the Chairman
of the Board of Trustees is Joseph Neubauer, and the President of the university is Robert
Zimmer. In December 2013 it was announced that the Director of Argonne National Laboratory,
Eric Isaacs, would become Provost. Isaacs was replaced as Provost in March 2016 by Daniel
Diermeier.The university’s endowment was the 12th largest among American educational institutions
and state university systems in 2013 and as of 2018 was valued at $8.2 billion. Part of
President Zimmer’s financial plan for the university has been an increase in accumulation
of debt to finance large building projects. This has drawn support and criticism from
many in the university community.==Academics==The academic bodies of the University of Chicago
consist of the College, five divisions of graduate research, six professional schools,
and the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies. The university also
contains a library system, the University of Chicago Press, and the University of Chicago
Medical Center, and oversees a number of laboratories, including Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
(Fermilab), Argonne National Laboratory, and the Marine Biological Laboratory. The university
is accredited by The Higher Learning Commission.The university runs on a quarter system in which
the academic year is divided into four terms: Summer (June–August), Autumn (September–December),
Winter (January–March), and Spring (April–June). Full-time undergraduate students take three
to four courses every quarter for approximately eleven weeks before their quarterly academic
breaks. The school year typically begins in late September and ends in mid-June.===Undergraduate college===The College of the University of Chicago grants
Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees in 51 academic majors and 33 minors. The college’s
academics are divided into five divisions: the Biological Sciences Collegiate Division,
the Physical Sciences Collegiate Division, the Social Sciences Collegiate Division, the
Humanities Collegiate Division, and the New Collegiate Division. The first four are sections
within their corresponding graduate divisions, while the New Collegiate Division administers
interdisciplinary majors and studies which do not fit in one of the other four divisions.Undergraduate
students are required to take a distribution of courses to satisfy the university’s general
education requirements, commonly known as the Common Core. In 2012–2013, the Core
classes at Chicago were limited to 17 courses, and are generally led by a full-time professor
(as opposed to a teaching assistant). As of the 2013–2014 school year, 15 courses and
demonstrated proficiency in a foreign language are required under the Core. Undergraduate
courses at the University of Chicago are known for their demanding standards, heavy workload
and academic difficulty; according to Uni in the USA, “Among the academic cream of American
universities – Harvard, Yale, Princeton, MIT, and the University of Chicago – it
is UChicago that can most convincingly claim to provide the most rigorous, intense learning
experience.”===
Graduate schools and committees===The university graduate schools and committees
are divided into five divisions: Biological Sciences, Humanities, Physical Sciences, Social
Sciences, and the Institute for Molecular Engineering. In the autumn quarter of 2015,
the university enrolled 3,588 graduate students: 438 in the Biological Sciences Division, 801
in the Humanities Division, 1,102 in the Physical Sciences Division, 1,165 in the Social Sciences
Division, and 52 in the Institute for Molecular Engineering.The university is home to several
committees for interdisciplinary scholarship, including the John U. Nef Committee on Social
Thought.===Professional schools===
The university contains seven professional schools: the Pritzker School of Medicine,
the Booth School of Business, the University of Chicago Law School, the University of Chicago
Divinity School, the University of Chicago Harris School of Public Policy Studies, and
the University of Chicago School of Social Service Administration. The Graham School
of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies offers non-degree courses and certificates
as well as degree programs.The Law School is accredited by the American Bar Association,
the Divinity School is accredited by the Commission on Accrediting of the Association of Theological
Schools in the United States and Canada, Pritzker is accredited by the Liaison Committee on
Medical Education.===Associated academic institutions===The university runs a number of academic institutions
and programs apart from its undergraduate and postgraduate schools. It operates the
University of Chicago Laboratory Schools (a private day school for K-12 students and day
care), and a public charter school with four campuses on the South Side of Chicago administered
by the university’s Urban Education Institute. In addition, the Hyde Park Day School, a school
for students with learning disabilities, and the Sonia Shankman Orthogenic School, a residential
treatment program for those with behavioral and emotional problems, maintains a location
on the University of Chicago campus. Since 1983, the University of Chicago has maintained
the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project, a mathematics program used in urban
primary and secondary schools. The university runs a program called the Council on Advanced
Studies in the Humanities and Social Sciences, which administers interdisciplinary workshops
to provide a forum for graduate students, faculty, and visiting scholars to present
scholarly work in progress. The university also operates the University
of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States.====Library system====The University of Chicago Library system encompasses
six libraries that contain a total of 11 million volumes, the 9th most among library systems
in the United States. The university’s main library is the Regenstein Library, which contains
one of the largest collections of print volumes in the United States. The Joe and Rika Mansueto
Library, built in 2011, houses a large study space and an automated book storage and retrieval
system. The John Crerar Library contains more than 1.4 million volumes in the biological,
medical and physical sciences and collections in general science and the philosophy and
history of science, medicine, and technology. The university also operates a number of special
libraries, including the D’Angelo Law Library, the Social Service Administration Library,
and the Eckhart Library for mathematics and computer science. Harper Memorial Library
is now a reading and study room.===Research===In fiscal year 2015, the University of Chicago
spent $421.1 million on research. It is classified by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement
of Teaching as an institution with “highest research activity” and is a founding member
of the Association of American Universities and was a member of the Committee on Institutional
Cooperation from 1946 through June 29, 2016, when the group’s name was changed to the Big
Ten Academic Alliance. The University of Chicago is not a member of the rebranded consortium,
but will continue to be a collaborator.The university operates more than 140 research
centers and institutes on campus. Among these are the Oriental Institute—a museum and
research center for Near Eastern studies owned and operated by the university—and a number
of National Resource Centers, including the Center for Middle Eastern Studies. Chicago
also operates or is affiliated with a number of research institutions apart from the university
proper. The university manages Argonne National Laboratory, part of the United States Department
of Energy’s national laboratory system, and co-manages Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
(Fermilab) , a nearby particle physics laboratory, as well as a stake in the Apache Point Observatory
in Sunspot, New Mexico. Faculty and students at the adjacent Toyota Technological Institute
at Chicago collaborate with the university. In 2013, the university formed an affiliation
with the formerly independent Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass. Although formally
unrelated, the National Opinion Research Center is located on Chicago’s campus.
The University of Chicago has been the site of some important experiments and academic
movements. In economics, the university has played an important role in shaping ideas
about the free market and is the namesake of the Chicago school of economics, the school
of economic thought supported by Milton Friedman and other economists. The university’s sociology
department was the first independent sociology department in the United States and gave birth
to the Chicago school of sociology. In physics, the university was the site of the Chicago
Pile-1 (the first controlled, self-sustaining man-made nuclear chain reaction, part of the
Manhattan Project), of Robert Millikan’s oil-drop experiment that calculated the charge of the
electron, and of the development of radiocarbon dating by Willard F. Libby in 1947. The chemical
experiment that tested how life originated on early Earth, the Miller–Urey experiment,
was conducted at the university. REM sleep was discovered at the university in 1953 by
Nathaniel Kleitman and Eugene Aserinsky.The University of Chicago (Department of Astronomy
and Astrophysics) has owned the Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin since 1897, where
the largest operating refracting telescope in the world and other telescopes are located.===Arts===The UChicago Arts program joins academic departments
and programs in the Division of the Humanities and the College, as well as professional organizations
including the Court Theatre, the Oriental Institute, the Smart Museum of Art, the Renaissance
Society, University of Chicago Presents, and student arts organizations. The university
has an artist-in-residence program and scholars in performance studies, contemporary art criticism,
and film history. It has offered a doctorate in music composition since 1933 and in cinema
and media studies since 2000, a master of fine arts in visual arts (early 1970s), and
a master of arts in the humanities with a creative writing track (2000). It has bachelor’s
degree programs in visual arts, music, and art history, and, more recently, cinema and
media studies (1996) and theater and performance studies (2002). The College’s general education
core includes a “dramatic, musical, and visual arts” requirement, inviting students to study
the history of the arts, stage desire, or begin working with sculpture. Several thousand
major and non-major undergraduates enroll annually in creative and performing arts classes.
UChicago is often considered the birthplace of improvisational comedy as the Compass Players
student comedy troupe evolved into The Second City improv theater troupe in 1959. The Reva
and David Logan Center for the Arts opened in October 2012, five years after a $35 million
gift from alumnus David Logan and his wife Reva. The center includes spaces for exhibitions,
performances, classes, and media production. The Logan Center was designed by Tod Williams
and Billie Tsien. This building is actually entirely glass. The brick is a facade designed
to keep the glass safe from the wind. The architects later removed sections of the bricks
when pressure arose in the form of complaints that the views of the city were blocked.===Reputation and rankings===
The University of Chicago has an extensive record of producing successful business leaders
and billionaires. ARWU has consistently placed the University of Chicago among the top 10
universities in the world, while the 2016/17 QS World University Rankings placed the university
in 10th place worldwide. The university’s law and business schools rank among the top
five professional schools in the United States. The business school is currently ranked first
in the US by US News & World Report and first in the world by The Economist , while the
law school is ranked fourth by US News & World Report and first by Above the Law. Chicago
has also been consistently recognized to be one of the top 15 university brands in the
world, retaining the number three spot in the 2019 U.S. News Best Colleges Rankings.
In a corporate study carried out by The New York Times, the university’s graduates were
shown to be among the most valued in the world.==Student body and admissions==
In the spring quarter of 2016, the University of Chicago enrolled 5,547 students in the
college, 3,249 students in its five graduate divisions, 3,498 students in its professional
schools, and 14,095 students overall. In the 2016 spring quarter, international students
comprised over 21% of the overall student body, over 27% of students were domestic ethnic
minorities, and about 43% of enrolled students were female. Admissions to the University
of Chicago is highly selective. The middle 50% band of SAT scores for the undergraduate
class of 2019, excluding the writing section, was 1450–1550, the average MCAT score for
entering students in the Pritzker School of Medicine in 2011 was 36, and the median LSAT
score for entering students in the Law School in 2015 was 171.
For the class of 2022, the College of the University of Chicago had an acceptance rate
of 7.2%, the lowest in the college’s history and among the lowest in the country.In 2018,
the University of Chicago attracted national headlines by becoming the first major research
university to no longer require SAT/ACT scores from college applicants.==Athletics==The University of Chicago hosts 19 varsity
sports teams: 10 men’s teams and 9 women’s teams, all called the Maroons, with 502 students
participating in the 2012–2013 school year.The Maroons compete in the NCAA’s Division III
as members of the University Athletic Association (UAA). The university was a founding member
of the Big Ten Conference and participated in the NCAA Division I men’s basketball and
football and was a regular participant in the men’s basketball tournament. In 1935,
the University of Chicago reached the Sweet Sixteen. In 1935, Chicago Maroons football
player Jay Berwanger became the first winner of the Heisman Trophy. However, the university
chose to withdraw from the Big Ten Conference in 1946 after University President Robert
Maynard Hutchins de-emphasized varsity athletics in 1939 and dropped football. (In 1969, Chicago
reinstated football as a Division III team, resuming playing its home games at the new
Stagg Field.) Uchicago is also home of the ultimate frisbee team, Chicago Junk.==Student life=====Student organizations===
Students at the University of Chicago operate more than 400 clubs and organizations known
as Recognized Student Organizations (RSOs). These include cultural and religious groups,
academic clubs and teams, and common-interest organizations. Notable extracurricular groups
include the University of Chicago College Bowl Team, which has won 118 tournaments and
15 national championships, leading both categories internationally. The university’s competitive
Model United Nations team was the top ranked team in North America in 2013–14 and 2014–2015.
Among notable RSOs are the nation’s longest continuously running student film society
Doc Films, the organizing committee for the University of Chicago Scavenger Hunt, the
twice-weekly student newspaper The Chicago Maroon, the alternative weekly student newspaper
South Side Weekly the satirical Chicago Shady Dealer, the nation’s second oldest continuously
running student improvisational theater troupe Off-Off Campus, and the investment club The
Blue Chips.====Student government====
All Recognized Student Organizations, from the University of Chicago Scavenger Hunt to
Model UN, in addition to academic teams, sports club, arts groups, and more are funded by
The University of Chicago Student Government. Student Government consists of graduate and
undergraduate students elected to represent members from their respective academic unit.
It is led by an Executive Committee, chaired by a President with the assistance of two
Vice Presidents, one for Administration and the other for Student Life, elected together
as a slate by the student body each spring. Its annual budget is greater than $2 million.===Fraternities and sororities===
There are eleven fraternities and five sororities at the University of Chicago, as well as one
co-ed community service fraternity, Alpha Phi Omega. Social fraternities and sororities
are not recognized by the university as registered student organizations. Four of the sororities
are members of the National Panhellenic Conference There is no Interfraternity Council on campus,
although there was one previously. As of 2017, approximately 20 to 25 percent of students
are members of fraternities or sororities. Increasing from the numbers published by the
student activities office stating that one in ten undergraduates participate in Greek
life in the year 2007.===Student housing===On-campus undergraduate students at the University
of Chicago participate in a house system in which each student is assigned to one of the
university’s 7 residence hall buildings and to a smaller community within their residence
hall called a “House”. There are 39 houses, with an average of 70 students in each House.
First-year students are required to participate in the house system, and housing is guaranteed
every year thereafter. About 60% of undergraduate students live on campus.For graduate students,
the university owns and operates 28 apartment buildings near campus.===Traditions===Every May since 1987, the University of Chicago
has held the University of Chicago Scavenger Hunt, in which large teams of students compete
to obtain notoriously esoteric items from a list. Since 1963, the Festival of the Arts
(FOTA) takes over campus for 7–10 days of exhibitions and interactive artistic endeavors.
Every January, the university holds a week-long winter festival, Kuviasungnerk/Kangeiko, which
include early morning exercise routines and fitness workshops. The university also annually
holds a summer carnival and concert called Summer Breeze that hosts outside musicians,
and is home to Doc Films, a student film society founded in 1932 that screens films nightly
at the university. Since 1946, the university has organized the Latke-Hamantash Debate,
which involves humorous discussions about the relative merits and meanings of latkes
and hamantashen.==People==There have been 97 Nobel laureates affiliated
with the University of Chicago, 20 of whom were pursuing research or on faculty at the
university at the time of the award announcement. Notable alumni and faculty affiliated with
the university include 31 Nobel laureates in Economics. No university has had more affiliated
Nobel laureates in Economics.In addition, many Chicago alumni and scholars have won
the Fulbright awards and 53 have matriculated as Rhodes Scholars.===Alumni===In 2004, the University of Chicago claimed
133,155 living alumni. While the university’s first president, William Rainey Harper stressed
the importance of perennial theory over practicality in his institution’s curriculum, this has
not stopped the alumni of Chicago from being amongst the wealthiest in the world.In business,
notable alumni include Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella, Oracle Corporation founder and the
third richest man in America Larry Ellison, Goldman Sachs and MF Global CEO as well as
former Governor of New Jersey Jon Corzine, McKinsey & Company founder and author of the
first management accounting textbook James O. McKinsey, co-founder of the Blackstone
Group Peter G. Peterson, co-founder of AQR Capital Management Cliff Asness, founder of
Dimensional Fund Advisors David Booth, founder of The Carlyle Group David Rubenstein, former
COO of Goldman Sachs Andrew Alper, billionaire investor and founder of Oaktree Capital Management
Howard Marks, Bloomberg L.P. CEO Daniel Doctoroff, Credit Suisse CEO Brady Dougan, Morningstar,
Inc. founder and CEO Joe Mansueto, Chicago Cubs owner and chairman Thomas S. Ricketts,
and NBA commissioner Adam Silver. Notable alumni in the field of law, government
and politics include Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens, the Lord Chief Justice
of England and Wales Lord Thomas of Cwmgiedd, President of the Supreme Court of Israel Shimon
Agranat, Attorney General and federal judge Robert Bork, Attorneys General Ramsey Clark,
John Ashcroft and Edward Levi, Prime Minister of Canada William Lyon Mackenzie King, 33rd
Prime Minister of New Zealand Geoffrey Palmer (politician), 11th Prime Minister of Poland
Marek Belka, Governor of the Bank of Japan Masaaki Shirakawa, Obama campaign advisor
and top political advisor to President Bill Clinton David Axelrod, the founder of modern
community organizing Saul Alinsky, Prohibition agent Eliot Ness, the first female African-American
Senator Carol Moseley Braun, United States Senator from Vermont and 2016 Democratic Presidential
Candidate Bernie Sanders, and former World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz.
Notable alumni, who are leaders in higher education, have emerged from almost all parts
of the university: college president and chancellor Rebecca Chopp; current president of Middlebury
College Laurie L. Patton; Master of Clare College, Cambridge and Vice-Chancellor of
University of Cambridge Eric Ashby, Baron Ashby; president of Princeton University Christopher
L. Eisgruber; former president of Morehouse College Robert M. Franklin, Jr.; and president
of Shimer College Susan Henking. In journalism, notable alumni include New
York Times columnist and commentator on PBS News Hour David Brooks, Washington Post columnist
David Broder, Washington Post publisher Katharine Graham, reporter and commentator Virginia
Graham, investigative journalist and political writer Seymour Hersh, The Progressive columnist
Milton Mayer, four-time Pulitzer Prize winning journalist Rick Atkinson, statistical analyst
and FiveThirtyEight founder and creator Nate Silver, and CBS News correspondent Rebecca
Jarvis. In literature, author of the New York Times
bestseller Before I Fall Lauren Oliver, Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist Philip Roth, Canadian-born
Pulitzer Prize and Nobel Prize for Literature winning writer Saul Bellow, political philosopher,
literary critic and author of the New York Times bestseller The Closing of the American
Mind Allan Bloom, author of The Big Country and Matt Helm spy novels Donald Hamilton,
The Good War author Studs Terkel, writer, essayist, filmmaker, teacher, and political
activist Susan Sontag, analytic philosopher and Stanford University Professor of Comparative
Literature Richard Rorty, and novelist and satirist Kurt Vonnegut are notable alumni.
In the arts and entertainment, minimalist composer Philip Glass, dancer, choreographer
and leader in the field of dance anthropology Katherine Dunham, Bungie founder and developer
of the Halo video game series Alex Seropian, Serial host Sarah Koenig, actor Ed Asner,
Pulitzer Prize for Criticism winning film critic and the subject of the 2014 documentary
film Life Itself Roger Ebert, director, writer, and comedian Mike Nichols, film director and
screenwriter Philip Kaufman, and photographer and writer Carl Van Vechten, photographer
and writer, are graduates. In science, alumni include astronomers Carl
Sagan, a prominent contributor to the scientific research of extraterrestrial life, and Edwin
Hubble, known for “Hubble’s Law”, NASA astronaut John M. Grunsfeld, geneticist James Watson,
best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA, experimental physicist
Luis Alvarez, popular environmentalist David Suzuki, balloonist Jeannette Piccard, biologists
Ernest Everett Just and Lynn Margulis, computer scientist Richard Hamming, the creator of
the Hamming Code, lithium-ion battery developer John B. Goodenough, mathematician and Fields
Medal recipient Paul Joseph Cohen, geochemist Clair Cameron Patterson, who developed the
uranium-lead dating method into lead-lead dating, geologist and geophysicist M. King
Hubbert, known for the Hubbert curve and Hubbert peak theory, the main components of peak oil,
and “Queen of Carbon” Mildred Dresselhaus. Nuclear physicist and researcher Stanton Friedman,
who worked on some early projects involving nuclear-powered spacecraft propulsion systems,
is also a graduate (M.Sc). In economics, notable Nobel Memorial Prize
in Economic Sciences winners Milton Friedman, a major advisor to Republican U.S. President
Ronald Reagan and Conservative British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, George Stigler,
Nobel laureate and proponent of regulatory capture theory, Gary Becker, an important
contributor to the family economics branch of economics, Herbert A. Simon, responsible
for the modern interpretation of the concept of organizational decision-making, Paul Samuelson,
the first American to win the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, and Eugene Fama,
known for his work on portfolio theory, asset pricing and stock market behaviour, are all
graduates. American economist, social theorist, political philosopher, and author Thomas Sowell
is also an alumnus. Other prominent alumni include anthropologists
David Graeber and Donald Johanson, who is best known for discovering the fossil of a
female hominid australopithecine known as “Lucy” in the Afar Triangle region, psychologist
John B. Watson, American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism,
communication theorist Harold Innis, chess grandmaster Samuel Reshevsky, and conservative
international relations scholar and White House Coordinator of Security Planning for
the National Security Council Samuel P. Huntington. American Civil Rights Movement leaders Vernon
Johns, considered by some to be the founder of the American Civil Rights Movement, American
educator, socialist and cofounder of the Highlander Folk School Myles Horton, Tuskegee Airmen
commander Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., and African-American history scholar and journalist Carter G. Woodson
are all alumni. Three students from the university have been
prosecuted in notable court cases: the infamous thrill killers Nathan Leopold and Richard
Loeb and high school science teacher John T. Scopes who was tried in the Scopes Monkey
Trial for teaching evolution.===Faculty===Notable faculty in economics include Milton
Friedman, George Stigler, James Heckman, Gary Becker, Robert Fogel, Robert Lucas, Jr. and
Eugene Fama. Additionally, the John Bates Clark Medal, which is rewarded annually to
the best economist under the age of 40, has also been awarded to 4 current members of
the university faculty.Notable faculty in physics have included the speed of light calculator
A. A. Michelson, elementary charge calculator Robert A. Millikan, discoverer of the Compton
Effect Arthur H. Compton, the creator of the first nuclear reactor Enrico Fermi, “the father
of the hydrogen bomb” Edward Teller, “one of the most brilliant and productive experimental
physicists of the twentieth century” Luis Walter Alvarez, Murray Gell-Mann who introduced
the quark, second female Nobel laureate Maria Goeppert-Mayer, the youngest American winner
of the Nobel Prize Tsung-Dao Lee, and astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar.
In law, former U.S. President Barack Obama, the most cited legal scholar of the 20th century
Richard Posner, Supreme Court justices Elena Kagan, Antonin Scalia and John Paul Stevens,
and Nobel laureate in Economics Ronald Coase have served on the faculty. Other distinguished
scholars who have served on the faculty include Karl Llewellyn, Edward Levi and Cass Sunstein.
Philosophers John Dewey who founded functional psychology, George H. Mead who is considered
to be one of the founders of social psychology and the American sociological tradition in
general, Leo Strauss, prominent philosopher and the founder of the Straussian School in
philosophy, noted analyzer of power Hannah Arendt, and Nobel Prize in Literature winning
thinker Bertrand Russell, as well as writers T.S. Eliot, Ralph Ellison and J.M. Coetzee
have all served on the faculty. Past faculty have also included egyptologist
James Henry Breasted, biochemist and National Women’s Hall of Fame member Florence B. Seibert,
mathematician Alberto Calderón, one of the leading figures of the Austrian School of
Economics and Nobel prize winner Friedrich Hayek, meteorologist Ted Fujita, chemists
Glenn T. Seaborg, the developer of the actinide concept and Nobel Prize winner Yuan T. Lee,
Nobel Prize winning novelist Saul Bellow, political philosopher and author Allan Bloom,
conservative political philosopher and historian Richard M. Weaver, cancer researchers Charles
Brenton Huggins and Janet Rowley, biologist Susan Lindquist, astronomer Gerard Kuiper,
one of the most important figures in the early development of the discipline of linguistics
Edward Sapir, and the founder of McKinsey & Co., James O. McKinsey.
Current faculty include the philosophers Jean-Luc Marion, James F. Conant, and Robert Pippin,
anthropologist Marshall Sahlins, historians Dipesh Chakrabarty and Kenneth Pomeranz, linguistic
anthropology Michael Silverstein, paleontologists Neil Shubin and Paul Sereno, evolutionary
biologist Jerry Coyne, Nobel prize winning physicist James Cronin, Nobel Prize winning
economists Eugene Fama, James Heckman, Lars Peter Hansen, Roger Myerson, Richard Thaler,
and Robert Lucas, Jr., Freakonomics author and noted economist Steven Levitt, erstwhile
governor of India’s central bank Raghuram Rajan, former Chairman of President Barack
Obama’s Council of Economic Advisors Austan Goolsbee, Kyoto Prize winner Martha Nussbaum,
Shakespeare scholar David Bevington, and political scientists John Mearsheimer and Robert Pape.==References====External links==
Official website Works written on the topic University of Chicago
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