University of California, Berkeley | Wikipedia audio article

University of California, Berkeley | Wikipedia audio article

August 16, 2019 0 By Stanley Isaacs


The University of California, Berkeley (UC
Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a top-ranked public research university in
the United States. Located in the city of Berkeley, it was founded in 1868, and serves
as the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University
of California system. Berkeley has since grown to instruct over 40,000 students in approximately
350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs covering numerous disciplines.Berkeley is
one of the 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, with $789 million
in R&D expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015. Today, Berkeley maintains close
relationships with three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories—Lawrence
Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National
Laboratory—and is home to many institutes, including the Mathematical Sciences Research
Institute and the Space Sciences Laboratory. Through its partner institution University
of California, San Francisco (UCSF), Berkeley also offers a joint medical program at the
UCSF Medical Center.As of October 2018, Berkeley alumni, faculty members and researchers include
107 Nobel laureates, 25 Turing Awards winners, and 14 Fields Medalists. They have also won
9 Wolf Prizes, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, 14 Pulitzer Prizes and 207
Olympic medals (117 gold, 51 silver and 39 bronze). In 1930, Ernest Lawrence invented
the cyclotron at Berkeley, based on which UC Berkeley researchers along with Berkeley
Lab have discovered or co-discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than
any other university in the world. During the 1940s, Berkeley physicist J. R. Oppenheimer,
the “Father of the Atomic Bomb”, led the Manhattan project to create the first atomic bomb. In
the 1960s, Berkeley was particularly noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the
Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. In the 21st century, Berkeley has become one
of the leading universities in producing entrepreneurs and its alumni have founded a large number
of companies worldwide.Berkeley is often ranked as a top-ten university in the world and as
the top public university in the United States. For 2017–18, the Academic Ranking of World
Universities (ARWU) ranked Berkeley 5th in the world. Berkeley also ranks 6th internationally
in the CWUR World University Rankings. It is additionally ranked 4th in the world by
U.S. News & World Report. Berkeley is ranked 15th internationally in the Times Higher Education
World University Rankings, and as the 6th most reputed university in the world by the
Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings.==History==In 1866, the private College of California
purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus. Because it lacked sufficient
funds to operate, it eventually merged with the state-run Agricultural, Mining, and Mechanical
Arts College to form the University of California, the first full-curriculum public university
in the state. Upon its founding, The Dwinelle Bill (California
Assembly Bill No. 583) stated that the “University shall have for its design, to provide instruction
and thorough and complete education in all departments of science, literature and art,
industrial and professional pursuits, and general education, and also special courses
of instruction in preparation for the professions”.Ten faculty members and almost 40 students made
up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869. Frederick H. Billings
was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the college be named in
honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder
of the College of California, became the first president. With the completion of North and
South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and
22 female students and held its first classes.Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several
large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings and sponsoring,
in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, Belgium, where French architect Émile Bénard
submitted the winning design for a campus master plan. In 1905, the University Farm
was established near Sacramento, ultimately becoming the University of California, Davis.
By the 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown substantially, and included twenty
structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.Robert Gordon Sproul served as president
from 1930 to 1958. By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked Berkeley second only to
Harvard in the number of distinguished departments. In the 1930s, Ernest Lawrence helped establish
the Radiation Laboratory (now Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) and invented the cyclotron,
which won him the Nobel physics prize in 1939. Based on the cyclotron, UC Berkeley scientists
and researchers, along with Berkeley Lab, went on to discover 16 chemical elements of
the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. In particular, during
World War II and following Glenn Seaborg’s then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest
Orlando Lawrence’s Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U.S. Army to develop
the atomic bomb. UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific
head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,
Berkeley is now a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory
(1943) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (1952).
During the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty
oath. A number of faculty members objected and were dismissed; ten years passed before
they were reinstated with back pay. In 1952, the University of California became an entity
separate from the Berkeley campus. Each campus was given relative autonomy and its own Chancellor.
Then-president Sproul assumed presidency of the entire University of California system,
and Clark Kerr became the first Chancellor of UC Berkeley. Berkeley gained worldwide reputation for student
activism in the 1960s with the Free Speech Movement of 1964 and opposition to the Vietnam
War. In the highly publicized People’s Park protest in 1969, students and the school conflicted
over use of a plot of land; the National Guard was called in and violence erupted. Then governor
of California Ronald Reagan called the Berkeley campus “…a haven for communist sympathizers,
protesters, and sex deviants”. Modern students at Berkeley are less politically radical,
with a greater percentage of moderates and conservatives than in the 20th century. Democrats
outnumber Republicans on the faculty by a ratio of 9:1. On the whole, Democrats outnumber
Republicans on American University campuses by a ratio of 10:1.In 1982, the Mathematical
Sciences Research Institute (MSRI) was founded on the Berkeley campus at the request of three
Berkeley mathematicians – Shiing-Shen Chern, Calvin Moore and Isadore M. Singer—and with
the support of the National Science Foundation. The institute was later moved to the Berkeley
Hills. The institute is now widely regarded as a leading center for collaborative mathematical
research, drawing thousands of visiting researchers from around the world each year.Entering the
21st century, as state funding declined, Berkeley turned to private sources: BP donated $400
million over 10 years to develop biofuels, the Hewlett Foundation gave $113 million to
endow 100 faculty chairs, the Simons Foundation gave $60 million to establish the Simons Institute
for the Theory of Computing, and, in 2016, Mark Zuckerberg and Priscilla Chan pledged
$600 million (shared with UCSF and Stanford University) to establish the BioHub. The 2008–13
Campaign for Berkeley raised $3.13 billion from 281,855 donors.===Name===The original name, University of California,
was frequently shortened to California or Cal. UC Berkeley’s athletic teams date to
this time and so are referred to as the California Golden Bears, Cal Bears, or just Cal. Today,
the term “University of California” refers to the statewide school system of which UC
Berkeley is a part. The university discourages referring to the University of California,
Berkeley as UCB, University of California at Berkeley, Cal Berkeley, U.C. Berkeley,
and UC-Berkeley. Berkeley is unaffiliated with the Berklee College of Music or Berkeley
College.===Controversies===
Originally, military training was compulsory for male undergraduates and Berkeley housed
an armory for that purpose. In 1917, Berkeley’s ROTC program was established and its School
of Military Aeronautics trained future pilots, including Jimmy Doolittle, who graduated with
a B.A. in 1922. Both Robert McNamara and Frederick C. Weyand graduated from Berkeley’s ROTC program,
earning B.A. degrees in 1937 and 1938, respectively. In 1926, future fleet admiral Chester W. Nimitz
established the first Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps unit at Berkeley. During World
War II, the military increased its presence on campus to recruit more officers, and by
1944, more than 1,000 Berkeley students were enrolled in the V-12 Navy College Training
Program and naval training school for diesel engineering. The Board of Regents ended compulsory
military training at Berkeley in 1962. Various human and animal rights groups have
conflicted with Berkeley. Native Americans conflicted with the school over repatriation
of remains from the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology. Animal-rights activists have
threatened faculty members using animals for research. The school’s response to tree sitters
protesting construction caused controversy in the local community.On May 1, 2014, Berkeley
was named one of fifty-five higher education institutions under investigation by the Office
of Civil Rights “for possible violations of federal law over the handling of sexual violence
and harassment complaints” by the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual
Assault. Investigations have continued into 2016, with hundreds of pages of records released
in April 2016, showing a pattern of documented sexual harassment and firings of non-tenured
staff.==Academics==Berkeley is a large, primarily residential
research university with a majority of its enrollment in undergraduate programs but also
offers a comprehensive doctoral graduate program. The university has been accredited by the
Western Association of Schools and Colleges Senior College and University Commission since
1949. The university is one of only two UC campuses operating on a semester calendar
(the other is UC Merced). Berkeley offers 106 Bachelor’s degrees, 88 Master’s degrees,
97 research-focused doctoral programs and 31 professionally focused graduate degrees.
The university awarded 7,565 Bachelor’s, 2,610 Master’s or Professional and 930 Doctoral
degrees in 2013–2014.Berkeley’s 130-plus academic departments and programs are organized
into 14 colleges and schools in addition to UC Berkeley Extension. Colleges are both undergraduate
and graduate, while Schools are generally graduate only, though some offer undergraduate
majors, minors, or courses. Berkeley does not have a medical school, but
the university offers the UC Berkeley – UCSF Joint Medical Program with the University
of California, San Francisco (UCSF), a standalone medical school that is also part of the University
of California. The institutions also share the UC Berkeley – UCSF Bioengineering Graduate
Program. Berkeley and UCSF have a long history of affiliation in medical research and are
the two oldest campuses in the UC system. UCSF manages the UCSF Medical Center, the
top-ranked hospital in California.===Undergraduate programs===
The four-year, full-time undergraduate program has a focus on the arts and sciences with
a high level of co-existence in undergraduate and graduate programs. Freshman admission
is selective but there are high levels of transfer-in. 107 Bachelor’s degrees are offered
across the Haas School of Business (1), College of Chemistry (5), College of Engineering (20),
College of Environmental Design (4), College of Letters and Science (67), College of Natural
Resources (10), and other individual majors (2). The most popular majors are Electrical
Engineering and Computer Science, Political Science, Molecular and Cell Biology, Environmental
Science, and Economics.Requirements for undergraduate degrees come from four sources: the University
of California system, the Berkeley campus, the college or school, and the department.
These requirements include an entry-level writing requirement before enrollment (typically
fulfilled by minimum scores on standardized admissions exams such as the SAT or ACT),
completing coursework on “American History and Institutions” before or after enrollment
by taking an introductory class, passing an “American Cultures Breadth” class at Berkeley,
as well as requirements for reading and composition and specific requirements declared by the
department and school. Three-hour final examinations are required in most undergraduate classes
and take place over a week following the last day of instruction in mid-December for the
Fall semester and in mid-May for the Spring semester. Academic grades are reported on
a five-letter scale (A,B,C,D,F) with grade points being modified by three-tenths of point
for pluses and minuses. Requirements for academic honors are specified by individual schools
and colleges, scholarly prizes are typically awarded by departments, and students are elected
to honor societies based on these organizations’ criteria.===Graduate and professional programs===Berkeley has a “comprehensive” graduate program
with high coexistence with the programs offered to undergraduates, but no medical school.
The university offers graduate degrees in Master’s of Art, Master’s of Science, Master’s
of Fine Art, and Ph.D.s in addition to professional degrees such as the Juris Doctor and Master
of Business Administration. The university awarded 887 doctoral degrees and 2,506 Master’s
degrees in 2012. Admission to graduate programs is decentralized; applicants apply directly
to the department or degree program. Most graduate students are supported by fellowships,
teach assistantships, or research assistantships. The 2010 United States National Research Council
Rankings identified UC Berkeley as having the highest number of top-ranked doctoral
programs in the nation. UC Berkeley doctoral programs that received a #1 ranking include
Agricultural and Resource Economics, Astrophysics, Chemistry, Civil and Environmental Engineering,
Computer Science, English, Epidemiology, Geography, German, Mathematics, Mechanical Engineering,
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Genetics, Genomics, and Development, Physics, Plant
Biology, and Political Science. UC Berkeley was also the #1 recipient of National Science
Foundation Graduate Research Fellowships between 2001 and 2010, with 1,333 awards.===Faculty and research===Berkeley is a research university with a “very
high” level of research activity. In fiscal year 2015, Berkeley spent $789 million on
research and development (R&D). There are 1,620 full-time and 500 part-time faculty
members among more than 130 academic departments and more than 80 interdisciplinary research
units. The current faculty includes 235 American Academy of Arts and Sciences Fellows, 3 Fields
Medal winners, 77 Fulbright Scholars, 139 Guggenheim Fellows, 73 members of the National
Academy of Engineering, 149 members of the National Academy of Sciences, 8 Nobel Prize
winners, 4 Pulitzer Prize winners, 125 Sloan Fellows, 7 Wolf Prize winners and 1 Pritzker
Prize winner. 107 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university as faculty,
alumni or researchers, the most of any public university in the United States and third
most of any university in the world.===Library system===Berkeley’s 32 libraries together make up the
fourth largest academic library in the United States, surpassed only by Harvard University
Library, Yale University Library and University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign Library.
However, considering the relative sizes and ages of these University libraries, Berkeley’s
collections have been growing about as fast as those at Harvard and Yale combined: specifically,
1.8 times faster than Harvard, and 1.9 times faster than Yale. In 2003, the Association
of Research Libraries ranked it as the top public and third overall university library
in North America based on various statistical measures of quality. As of 2006, Berkeley’s
library system contains over 11 million volumes and maintains over 70,000 serial titles. The
libraries together cover over 12 acres (4.9 ha) of land and form one of the largest library
complexes in the world. Doe Library serves as the library system’s reference, periodical,
and administrative center, while most of the main collections are housed in the subterranean
Gardner Main Stacks and Moffitt Undergraduate Library. The Bancroft Library, with holdings
of over 400,000 printed volumes and 70 million manuscripts, pictorial items, maps and more,
maintains special collections that document the history of the western part of North America,
with an emphasis on California, Mexico and Central America. The Bancroft Library also
houses The Mark Twain Papers, The Oral History Center, the Center for the Tebtunis Papyri
and the University Archives.===Rankings and reputation===
Berkeley is often ranked as a top-ten university in the world and the top public university
in the United States, as well as the top public university producing Nobel laureates and billionaires
. For 2017–18, the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) ranked Berkeley 5th in
the world. Berkeley ranks 27th internationally in the QS World University Rankings. It is
additionally ranked 4th internationally by U.S. News & World Report. Berkeley is ranked
18th internationally among research universities in the Times Higher Education World University
Rankings, and as the 6th most reputed university in the world by the Times Higher Education
World Reputation Rankings.====Global====
The Times Higher Education World University Rankings (THE) for 2017–2018 ranks Berkeley
10th and recognized the institution as one of the world’s “six super brands” on its World
Reputation Rankings, along with Cambridge, Harvard, MIT, Oxford and Stanford. In its
2017 edition, U.S. News & World Report ranked Berkeley 4th in their Best Global University
Rankings. In 2016, Berkeley was ranked 3rd in the world by the Academic Ranking of World
Universities (ARWU) and 28th in the 2016/17QS World University Rankings. The Center for
World University Rankings (CWUR) ranked the university 7th in the world based on quality
of education, alumni employment, quality of faculty, publications, influence, citations,
broad impact, and patents in 2015. In 2016, the Nature Index ranked Berkeley 7th in the
world based on research publication output in top tier academic journals in the life
sciences, chemistry, earth and environmental sciences and physical sciences based on publication
data from 2015.====National====
The 2016 U.S. News & World Report “Best Colleges” report ranked Berkeley first among public
universities and 20th among national universities. Washington Monthly ranked Berkeley 7th among
national universities in 2016, with criteria based on research, community service, and
social mobility. The Money Magazine Best Colleges ranking for 2015 ranked Berkeley 9th in the
United States, based on educational quality, affordability and alumni earnings. For 2015
Kiplinger ranked Berkeley the 4th best-value public university in the nation for in-state
students, and 6th for out-of-state students. The 2018 Forbes America’s Top Colleges report
ranked Berkeley 14th among all universities and liberal arts colleges in the United States.In
2014, The Daily Beast’s Best Colleges report ranked Berkeley 11th in the country. The 2013
Top American Research Universities report by the Center for Measuring University Performance
ranked Berkeley 8th over-all, 5th in resources, faculty, and education, 9th in resources and
education, and 1st in education. Berkeley was listed as a “Public Ivy” in Richard Moll’s
1985 Public Ivies.==Discoveries and innovation==A number of significant inventions and discoveries
have been made by the Berkeley faculty and researchers:===Natural sciences===
Antimalarial medication – Jay Keasling creates affordable malarial drug 2006.
Atomic bomb – J. Robert Oppenheimer professor of physics at UC Berkeley was the wartime
director of Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Manhattan Project.
Carbon 14 & Photosynthesis – Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben first discovered carbon 14 in
1940, and Nobel laureate Melvin Calvin and his colleges used carbon 14 as a molecular
tracer to reveal the carbon assimilation path in photosynthesis, known as Calvin cycle.
Carcinogens – Identified chemicals that damage DNA. The Ames test was described in
a series of papers in 1973 by Bruce Ames and his group at the University.
Chemical Elements – 16 elements have been discovered at Berkeley (astatine, neptunium,
plutonium, curium, americium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium,
lawrencium, dubnium, seaborgium, technetium, and rutherfordium).
Covalent bond – Gilbert N. Lewis in 1916 described the sharing of electron pairs between
atoms, and invented the Lewis notation to describe the mechanisms.
CRISPR gene editing – Jennifer Doudna discovers a precise and inexpensive way for manipulating
DNA in human cells. Cyclotron – Ernest O. Lawrence created a
particle accelerator in 1934, and was awarded the Nobel Physics Prize in 1939.
Dark energy – Saul Perlmutter and a lot of other people in the Supernova Cosmology
Project discover the universe is expanding because of dark energy 1998.
Flu vaccine – Wendell M. Stanley and collegus discovered the vaccine in the 1940s.
Hydrogen bomb – Edward Teller, the father of hydrogen bomb, was a professor at Berkeley
and a researcher at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory & the Los Alamos National
Laboratory. Immunotherapy of cancer – James P. Allison
discovers and develops monoclonal antibody therapy that uses the immune system to combat
cancer 1992–1995. Keck Telescope – Jerry Nelson helped build
one of the world’s largest telescopes in 1992. Molecular clock – Allan Wilson discovery
in 1967. Neuroplasticity – Marian Diamond discovers
structural, biochemical, and synaptic changes in brain caused by environmental enrichment
1964 Oncogene – Peter Duesberg discovers first
cancer causing gene in a virus 1970s. Peptoid – Ronald Zuckermann co-invents peptoids,
and invents peptoid nanosheet. Telomerase – Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol
Greider, and Jack Szostak discover enzyme that promotes cell division and growth 1985.
Vitamin E – Gladys Anderson Emerson isolates Vitamin E in a pure form in 1952.===Computer and applied sciences===
Berkeley RISC – David Patterson leads ARPA’s VLSI project of microprocessor design 1980–1984.
Berkeley UNIX/Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) – The Computer Systems Research Group
was a research group at Berkeley that was dedicated to enhancing AT&T Unix operating
system and funded by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Bill Joy modified the code
and released it in 1977 under the open source BSD license, starting an open-source revolution.
Deep sea diving – Joel Henry Hildebrand used helium with oxygen to mitigate decompression
sickness. GIMP – In 1995, Spencer Kimball and Peter
Mattis began developing GIMP as a semester-long project at Berkeley.
Microscopic motor – Richard S. Muller invents the first electrically powered microscopic
motor in 1988. Polygraph – invented by John Augustus Larson
and a police officer from the Berkeley Police Department in 1921.
Project Genie – DARPA funded project. It produced an early time-sharing system including
the Berkeley Timesharing System, which was then commercialized as the SDS 940. Concepts
from Project Genie influenced the development of the TENEX operating system for the PDP-10,
and Unix, which inherited the concept of process forking from it. Unix co-creator Ken Thompson
worked on Project Genie while at Berkeley. SPICE – Donald O. Pederson develops the Simulation
Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE) 1972.
Tcl programming language – developed by John Ousterhout in 1988.
Three-dimensional Transistor – Chenming Hu won the 2014 National Medal of Technology
for developing the “first 3-dimensional transistors, which radically advanced semiconductor technology.”
Vi text editor – Bill Joy created the first Vi editor in 1976.
Wetsuit – Hugh Bradner invents first wetsuit 1952.===Companies and entrepreneurship===
UC Berkeley alumni and faculty have founded a large number of companies, some of which
are shown below. UC Berkeley has often been cited as one of the universities that have
produced most entrepreneurs.AIG, 1919, founder Cornelius Vander Starr (Attended)
Apple, 1976, co-founder Steve Wozniak (BS) Bio-Rad Laboratories, 1952, co-founders David
Schwartz (BS) and Alice Schwartz (BS) Coursera, 2012, co-founder Andrew Ng (PhD)
eBay, 1995, founder Pierre Omidyar (Attended). Gap Inc., 1969, co-founder Donald Fisher (BS)
HTC Corportion, 1997, co-founder Cher Wang (BA)
Intel, 1968, co-founders Gordon Moore (BS) and Andy Grove (PhD)
Marvell Technology Group, 1995, co-founders Sehat Sutardja (MS, PhD) and Weili Dai (BA)
Mozilla Corporation, 2005, co-founder Mitchell Baker (BA, JD)
Myspace, 2003, co-founder Tom Anderson (BA) Renaissance Technologies, 1982, founder James
Simons (PhD) Rotten Tomatoes, 1998, founders Senh Duong
(BA), Patrick Y. Lee (BA) and Stephen Wang (BA)
SanDisk, 1988, co-founder Sanjay Mehrotra (BS, MS)
Softbank, 1981, founder Masayoshi Son (BA) Sun Microsystems, 1982, co-founder Bill Joy
(MS) Tesla, 2003, co-founder Marc Tarpenning (BS)
VMware, 1998, co-founders Diane Greene (MS) and Mendel Rosenblum (PhD)==Campus==The Berkeley campus encompasses approximately
1,232 acres (499 ha), though the “central campus” occupies only the low-lying western
178 acres (72 ha) of this area. Of the remaining acres, approximately 200 acres (81 ha) are
occupied by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; other facilities above the main
campus include the Lawrence Hall of Science and several research units, notably the Space
Sciences Laboratory, the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute, an undeveloped 800-acre
(320 ha) ecological preserve, the University of California Botanical Garden and a recreation
center in Strawberry Canyon. Portions of the mostly undeveloped, eastern area of the campus
are actually within the City of Oakland; these portions extend from the Claremont Resort
north through the Panoramic Hill neighborhood to Tilden Park. To the west of the central campus is the downtown
business district of Berkeley; to the northwest is the neighborhood of North Berkeley, including
the so-called Gourmet Ghetto, a commercial district known for high quality dining due
to the presence of such world-renowned restaurants as Chez Panisse. Immediately to the north
is a quiet residential neighborhood known as Northside with a large graduate student
population; situated north of that are the upscale residential neighborhoods of the Berkeley
Hills. Immediately southeast of campus lies fraternity row, and beyond that the Clark
Kerr Campus and an upscale residential area named Claremont. The area south of the university
includes student housing and Telegraph Avenue, one of Berkeley’s main shopping districts
with stores, street vendors and restaurants catering to college students and tourists.
In addition, the University also owns land to the northwest of the main campus, a 90-acre
(36 ha) married student housing complex in the nearby town of Albany (“Albany Village”
and the “Gill Tract”), and a field research station several miles to the north in Richmond,
California. The campus is home to several museums including
the University of California Museum of Paleontology, the UC Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film
Archive, and the Lawrence Hall of Science. The Museum of Paleontology, found in the lobby
of the Valley Life Sciences Building, showcases a variety of dinosaur fossils including a
complete cast of a Tyrannosaurus Rex. Outside of the Bay Area, the University owns
various research laboratories and research forests in both northern and southern Sierra
Nevada.===Architecture===What is considered the historic campus today
was the result of the 1898 “International Competition for the Phoebe Hearst Architectural
Plan for the University of California,” funded by William Randolph Hearst’s mother and initially
held in the Belgian city of Antwerp; eleven finalists were judged again in San Francisco
in 1899. The winner was Frenchman Émile Bénard, however he refused to personally supervise
the implementation of his plan and the task was subsequently given to architecture professor
John Galen Howard. Howard designed over twenty buildings, which set the tone for the campus
up until its expansion in the 1950s and 1960s. The structures forming the “classical core”
of the campus were built in the Beaux-Arts Classical style, and include Hearst Greek
Theatre, Hearst Memorial Mining Building, Doe Memorial Library, California Hall, Wheeler
Hall, (Old) Le Conte Hall, Gilman Hall, Haviland Hall, Wellman Hall, Sather Gate, and the 307-foot
(94 m) Sather Tower (nicknamed “the Campanile” after its architectural inspiration, St Mark’s
Campanile in Venice), the tallest university clock tower in the United States. Buildings
he regarded as temporary, nonacademic, or not particularly “serious” were designed in
shingle or Collegiate Gothic styles; examples of these are North Gate Hall, Dwinelle Annex,
and Stephens Hall. Many of Howard’s designs are recognized California Historical Landmarks
and are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Built in 1873 in a Victorian Second-Empire-style, South Hall is the oldest university building
in California. It, and the Frederick Law Olmsted-designed Piedmont Avenue east of the main campus, are
the only remnants from the original University of California before John Galen Howard’s buildings
were constructed. Other architects whose work can be found in the campus and surrounding
area are Bernard Maybeck (best known for the Palace of Fine Arts in San Francisco), Maybeck’s
student Julia Morgan (Hearst Women’s Gymnasium), Charles Willard Moore (Haas School of Business)
and Joseph Esherick (Wurster Hall).===Natural features===Flowing into the main campus are two branches
of Strawberry Creek. The south fork enters a culvert upstream of the recreational complex
at the mouth of Strawberry Canyon and passes beneath California Memorial Stadium before
appearing again in Faculty Glade. It then runs through the center of the campus before
disappearing underground at the west end of campus. The north fork appears just east of
University House and runs through the glade north of the Valley Life Sciences Building,
the original site of the Campus Arboretum. Trees in the area date from the founding of
the University in the 1870s. The campus, itself, contains numerous wooded areas; including:
Founders’ Rock, Faculty Glade, Grinnell Natural Area, and the Eucalyptus Grove, which is both
the tallest stand of such trees in the world and the tallest stand of hardwood trees in
North America.The campus sits on the Hayward Fault, which runs directly through California
Memorial Stadium. There is ongoing construction to retrofit the stadium. The “treesit” protest
revolved around the controversy of clearing away trees by the stadium to build the new
Student Athlete High Performance Center. As the stadium sits directly on the fault, this
raised campus concerns of the safety of student athletes in the event of an earthquake as
they train in facilities under the stadium stands.===Environmental record===
Through its Office of Sustainability and Energy, UC Berkeley works to implement sustainability
initiatives on campus. The university encourages green purchasing when possible and installing
energy-efficient technologies. UC Berkeley has a green building policy. Nine buildings
on campus are LEED Gold, five are LEED Silver, and one is LEED Certified. Multiple building
spaces have been repurposed for alternative use, and waste from construction projects
is reduced. Water conservation technologies have been installed across campus, and the
university employs a variety of techniques to manage storm water. UC Berkeley heats,
cools, and powers its lab equipment with power from an on-campus natural gas plant. UC Berkeley’s
efforts toward sustainability earned the school an overall grade of B+ on one sustainability
report card.==Organization and administration==
The University of California is governed by a 26-member Board of Regents, 18 of which
are appointed by the Governor of California to 12-year terms, 7 serving as ex officio
members, a single student regent and a non-voting student regent-designate. The position of
Chancellor was created in 1952 to lead individual campuses. The Board appointed Nicholas Dirks
the 10th Chancellor of the university in 2013 after Robert J. Birgeneau, originally appointed
in 2004, announced his resignation. 12 vice chancellors report directly to the Chancellor.
The Executive Vice Chancellor and Provost serves as the chief academic officer and is
the office to which the deans of the 14 colleges and schools report.On August 16, 2016, Dirks
announced he would step down as chancellor after months of heavy criticism from faculty
over his management of university finances and his handling of a string of sexual misconduct
cases involving high-profile faculty. Dirks said he would step down upon the selection
of a successor, who will be picked by a search committee of a dozen university leaders. In
March 2017, his successor, Carol T. Christ, was confirmed by the UC Regents and assumed
the position on July 1, 2017.The 2006–07 budget totaled $1.7 billion; 33% came from
the State of California. In 2006–07, 7,850 donors contributed $267.9 million and the
endowment was valued at $2.89 billion. UC Berkeley employs 24,700 people directly
and employees are permitted to unionize and are represented by AFSCME, California Nurses
Association (CNA), CUE-Teamsters Local 2010 (formerly the Coalition of University Employees
(CUE)), UAW, UC-AFT, and UPTE.===Funding===Berkeley receives funding from a variety of
federal, state, and private sources. With the exception of government contracts, public
money is proportioned to Berkeley and the other 9 campuses of the University of California
system through the UC Office of the President. State funding has, historically, been very
high at the University of California. In 1987, the state provided 54% of Berkeley’s budget.
However, educational appropriations to the university have declined significantly over
the last few decades, with general state support dropping to 12% of the university’s total
revenues in 2013. To be sure, Berkeley has long benefited from private philanthropy,
with considerable gifts from members of the Flood, Hearst, Durant, Strauss, Lick, Harmon,
and Bacon families in the 19th century and from the Hearst, Doe, Sather, Rockefeller,
Cowell, Haviland, Bowles, Boalt, and Stern families, among others, in the first half
of the 20th century. More recently, helping to offset the decline in state funding, alumni
and their foundations have given generously to the school, with major contributions from,
among many others, the Haas family (Haas, Goldman, Koshland); Gordon Moore (BS, 1950,
over $110 million over the past two decades, primarily through multiple grants by the Gordon
and Betty Moore Foundation); the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation (Flora Lamson Hewlett,
BS, 1935, a total of over $140 million since 2000, most notably a $113 million gift announced
in 2007); William V. Power (Class of 1930, multiple gifts, including a $26 million gift
in 1999 and his $46.5 million bequest in 2003); the Simons family—over $110 million from
James Harris Simons (PhD, 1961—multiple gifts, including a $60 million grant through
the Simons Foundation to establish the Simons Institute), Mark Heising and Elizabeth Simons
(both alums, over $32 million through the Heising-Simons Foundation over the past decade),
and Nathaniel Simons (BA, MA in mathematics) and Laura Baxter-Simons (BA, MA); F. Warren
Hellman (BA); Donald Fisher (Class of ’51) and Doris Fisher; Sanford Diller (Class of
’48) and Helen Diller (’50); Laura and Stephen D. Bechtel, Sr. (both Class of 1923); Sehat
Sutardja (MS, PhD) and Weili Dai (BS); Gerson Bakar (BS); Edward and Carol Spieker (both
of the Class of ’66); Pehong Chen (PhD); Cornelius Vander Starr (attendee); Paul E. Jacobs (BS,
MS, PhD); Richard C. Blum (BS); and Kevin Chou (BS, 2002), the youngest major alumni
benefactor in the school’s history. Outside of alumni, Berkeley has also benefited
from the generosity of friends, corporations, and foundations, notable among which are Mark
Zuckerberg and Dr. Priscilla Chan (pledged $600 million, shared with UCSF and Stanford
University, to form the BioHub); BP (pledged $400 million to research biofuels); the Bill
and Melinda Gates Foundation (over $60 million in a series of grants since the foundation’s
creation), billionaire Sir Ka-Shing Li (multiple gifts, most notably a $40 million gift in
2005), Israeli-Russian billionaire Yuri Milner, and Thomas and Stacey Siebel.
Over the years, anonymous donors have given hundreds of millions of dollars to the school,
including a 1999 gift of $50 million to support molecular engineering and a 2018 gift of $50
million to support STEM faculty.In 2014, Cal presented a plan to the Board of Regents that
would create a venture capital fund that would fund student and faculty startups.====Financial aid and scholarship programs
====Students and prospective students of UC Berkeley
are eligible for a variety of public and private financial aid. Generally, financial aid inquiries
are processed through the UC Berkeley Financial Aid and Scholarships Office. Some graduate
schools, such as the Haas School of Business and Berkeley Law, have their own financial
aid offices.==Admissions and enrollment==
For Fall 2018, Berkeley’s acceptance rate for freshman was 15.1%. Total enrollment was
41,910 – 30,574 undergraduate and 11,336 graduate students – with women accounting
for 52.7% of undergraduates and 46.2% of graduate and professional students. Of enrolled freshman,
nearly 54% were women and approximately 60% self-identified as persons of color. Enrolled
freshman had an average weighted secondary school GPA of 4.45 (unweighted GPA of 3.92)
and had an average SAT score of 1435 (average ACT score of 32). The interquartile range
for SAT scores was 1340–1530, with 660–750 for reading/writing and 670–750 for math.
Berkeley’s enrollment of National Merit Scholars was third in the nation until 2002, when participation
in the National Merit program was discontinued. For 2016–17, Berkeley ranked fifth in enrollment
of recipients of the National Merit $2,500 Scholarship (136 scholars). 33% of admitted
students receive federal Pell grants.==Student life and traditions==The official university mascot is Oski the
Bear, who debuted in 1941. Previously, live bear cubs were used as mascots at Memorial
Stadium until it was decided in 1940 that a costumed mascot would be a better alternative.
Named after the Oski-wow-wow yell, he is cared for by the Oski Committee, whose members have
exclusive knowledge of the identity of the costume-wearer.The University of California
Marching Band, which has served the university since 1891, performs at every home football
game and at select road games as well. A smaller subset of the Cal Band, the Straw Hat Band,
performs at basketball games, volleyball games, and other campus and community events.The
UC Rally Committee, formed in 1901, is the official guardian of California’s Spirit and
Traditions. Wearing their traditional blue and gold rugbies, Rally Committee members
can be seen at all major sporting and spirit events. Committee members are charged with
the maintenance of the five Cal flags, the large California banner overhanging the Memorial
Stadium Student Section and Haas Pavilion, the California Victory Cannon, Card Stunts
and The Big “C” among other duties. The Rally Committee is also responsible for safekeeping
of the Stanford Axe when it is in Cal’s possession. The Chairman of the Rally Committee holds
the title “Custodian of the Axe” while it is in the Committee’s care.
The Cal Mic Men, a standard at home football games, has recently expanded to involve basketball
and volleyball. The traditional role comes from students holding megaphones and yelling,
but now includes microphones, a dedicated platform during games, and the direction of
the entire student section. Both men and women are allowed to fulfill the role, despite the
name. Overlooking the main Berkeley campus from
the foothills in the east, The Big “C” is an important symbol of California school spirit.
The Big “C” has its roots in an early 20th-century campus event called “Rush,” which pitted the
freshman and sophomore classes against each other in a race up Charter Hill that often
developed into a wrestling match. It was eventually decided to discontinue Rush and, in 1905,
the freshman and sophomore classes banded together in a show of unity to build “the
Big C”. Owing to its prominent position, the Big “C” is often the target of pranks by rival
Stanford University students who paint the Big “C” red and also fraternities and sororities
who paint it their organization’s colors. One of the Rally Committee’s functions is
to repaint the Big “C” to its traditional color of King Alfred Yellow.
Cal students invented the college football tradition of card stunts. Then known as Bleacher
Stunts, they were first performed during the 1910 Big Game and consisted of two stunts:
a picture of the Stanford Axe and a large blue “C” on a white background. The tradition
continues today in the Cal student section and incorporates complicated motions, for
example tracing the Cal script logo on a blue background with an imaginary yellow pen.The
California Victory Cannon, placed on Tightwad Hill overlooking the stadium, is fired before
every football home game, after every score, and after every Cal victory. First used in
the 1963 Big Game, it was originally placed on the sidelines before moving to Tightwad
Hill in 1971. The only time the cannon ran out of ammunition was during a game against
Pacific in 1991, when Cal scored 12 touchdowns.===Student housing===
Students at UC Berkeley live in a variety of housing that cater to personal and academic
preferences and styles. The immediately surrounding community offers apartments, Greek (fraternity
and sorority) housing and cooperative housing, twenty of which are houses that are members
of the Berkeley Student Cooperative.====University housing====The university runs twelve different residence
halls: seven undergraduate residence halls or complexes, both with and without themes;
family student housing; re-entry student housing; and optional international student housing
at the International House, built with a gift from John D. Rockefeller, Jr. and the erstwhile
home of six Nobel laureates. Undergraduate residence halls are located off-campus in
the city of Berkeley. Units 1, 2 and 3, located on the south side of campus, offer high-rise
accommodations with common areas on every other floor. Units 1 and 2 share a common
dining hall, Crossroads. The oldest unit, Unit 3, has its own dining hall, Café 3,
on the first floor. Further away and also on the south side of campus is Clark Kerr,
an undergraduate residential complex that houses many student athletes and was once
a school for the deaf and blind. In the foothills east of the central campus,
there are three additional undergraduate residence halls: Foothill, Stern, and Bowles. Foothill
is a co-ed, suite-style hall reminiscent of a Swiss chalet. Just south of Foothill, overlooking
the Hearst Greek Theatre, is the all-women’s traditional-style Stern Hall, which boasts
an original mural by Diego Rivera. Because of their proximity to the College of Engineering
and College of Chemistry, these residence halls often house science and engineering
majors. They tend to be quieter than the southside complexes but often get free glimpses of concerts
owing to their proximity to the theater. Bowles Hall, the oldest state-owned residence hall
in California, is located immediately north of California Memorial Stadium. Dedicated
in 1929 and on the National Register of Historic Places, this residence hall is known for its
Collegiate Gothic architecture and large rooms (“quads”) that can accommodate four students. The Channing-Bowditch and Ida Jackson apartments
are intended for older students. Family student housing consists of two main groups of housing:
University Village and Smyth-Fernwald. University Village is located 3 miles (4.8 km) northwest
of campus in Albany, California, and Smyth-Fernwald is near the Clark Kerr campus.====Cooperative housing====
Students in Berkeley have a number of cooperative housing options. The largest network of student
housing cooperatives in the area is the Berkeley Student Cooperative (BSC). Berkeley students, as well as students of
other universities and colleges in the area, have the option of living in one of the twenty
cooperative houses of the Berkeley Student Cooperative (BSC), formerly the University
Students’ Cooperative Association (USCA) and member of the national cooperative federation,
NASCO. The BSC is a nonprofit housing cooperative network consisting of 20 cooperative homes
and 1250 member-owners. The USCA (as the BSC was known by at that
time) was founded in 1933 by then-director of the YWCA, Harry Kingman. The birth of the
USCA, as well as many other cooperative organizations around the country, coincided with the Great
Depression precisely as a response to scant resources. By living together in large houses
and pooling together resources, members found that their monetary resources could go further
to pay for their cost of living than living separately.
In the 1960s, the USCA pioneered the first co-ed university housing in Berkeley, called
the Ridge Project (later renamed Casa Zimbabwe). In 1975, the USCA founded its first and only
vegetarian-themed house, Lothlorien. In 1997, the USCA opened its African-American theme
house, Afro House, and in 1999 its LGBT-themed house, named after Irish author and poet Oscar
Wilde.Notable alumni of the BSC include Marion Nestle, professor at New York University and
author of Food Politics, and Beverly Cleary, a writer of children’s books.====Fraternities and sororities====
University-sanctioned fraternities and sororities comprise over 60 houses that are accredited
to one of four Governing Councils, all under the umbrella organization of CalGreeks.===Student-run organizations=======
Student government====The Associated Students of the University
of California (ASUC) is the official student association that controls funding for student
groups and organizes on-campus student events. It is considered one of the most autonomous
student governments at any public university in the U.S. The two main political parties
are “Student Action” and “CalSERVE.” The organization was founded in 1887 and has an annual operating
budget of $1.7 million (excluding the budget of the Graduate Assembly of the ASUC), in
addition to various investment assets. The ASUC’s Student Union Program, Entertainment,
and Recreation Board (SUPERB) is a student-run, non-profit branch dedicated to providing entertainment
for the campus and community. Founded in 1964, SUPERB’s programming includes the Friday Film
Series, free Noon Concerts on Lower Sproul Plaza, Comedy Competitions, Poker Tournaments,
free Sneak Previews of upcoming movies, and more.
In April 2013, in an 11–9 vote, the ASUC Senate passed a Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions
resolution for the UC system to divest from companies that are assisting in Israel’s “…illegal
occupation and ensuing human rights abuses”.====Communications media====UC Berkeley’s student-run online television
station, CalTV, was formed in 2005 and broadcasts online. It is run by students with a variety
of backgrounds and majors. Since the mid-2010s, it has been a program of the ASUC.UC Berkeley’s
independent student-run newspaper is The Daily Californian. Founded in 1871, The Daily Cal
became independent in 1971 after the campus administration fired three senior editors
for encouraging readers to take back People’s Park. The Daily Californian has both a print
and online edition. Print circulation is about 10,000. The newspaper is an important source
of information for students, faculty, staff, and the surrounding City of Berkeley.
Berkeley’s FM Student radio station, KALX, broadcasts on 90.7 MHz. It is run largely
by volunteers, including both students and community members.
Berkeley also features an assortment of student-run magazines, most notably Caliber Magazine.
Founded in 2008, Caliber Magazine promotes itself as “the everything magazine” by featuring
articles and blogs on a wide range of topics. It has been voted “Best Magazine on Campus”
by the readers of the Daily Cal as well as “Best Publication on Campus” by the ASUC.====Student groups====UC Berkeley has a reputation for student activism,
stemming from the 1960s and the Free Speech Movement. Today, Berkeley is known as a lively
campus with activism in many forms, from email petitions, presentations on Sproul Plaza and
volunteering, to the occasional protest. During the 2006–07 school year, there were 94 political
student groups on campus including MEChXA de UC Berkeley, Berkeley American Civil Liberties
Union, Berkeley Students for Life, Campus Greens, The Sustainability Team (STEAM), the
Berkeley Student Food Collective, Students for Sensible Drug Policy, Cal Berkeley Democrats,
and the Berkeley College Republicans. Berkeley sends the most students to the Peace Corps
of any university in the nation.The Residence Hall Assembly (RHA) is the student-run residence
hall organization that oversees all aspects of residence wide event planning, legislation,
sponsorships and activities for over 7,200 on-campus undergraduate residents. Founded
in 1988 by the President’s Council, it is now funded and supported by the Residential
and Student Service Programs department on campus.UC Berkeley also has a rich history
of student-run consulting groups. The Berkeley Group is a student consulting organization,
founded in 2003, affiliated with UC Berkeley and the Haas School of Business. Students
of all majors are recruited and trained to work on pro-bono consulting engagements with
real-life nonprofit clients. The oldest consulting group on campus is Berkeley Consulting, founded
in 1996, which has served over 140 companies across technology, retail, banking, and non-profit
sectors. Berkeley Business Society provides its members the opportunity to work directly
with firms in industries ranging from finance to technology to entertainment.ImagiCal has
been the college chapter of the American Advertising Federation at Berkeley since the late 1980s.
Every year, the team competes in the National Student Advertising Competition. Students
from various backgrounds come together to work on a marketing case provided by the AAF
and a corporate sponsor to college chapters across the nation. Most recently, the UC Berkeley
team won in their region in 2005, 2009 and 2012, going on to win 4th and 3rd in the nation
in 2005 and 2009, respectively. The Berkeley Forum is a student organization
that hosts panels, debates, and talks by leading experts from many different fields. The organization
is nonpartisan and has brought a wide variety of speakers to campus, including Senator Rand
Paul, entrepreneur and venture capitalist Peter Thiel, Khan Academy founder Salman Khan,
and many others. Democratic Education at Cal, or DeCal, is
a program that promotes the creation of professor-sponsored, student-facilitated classes through the Special
Studies 98/198 program. DeCal arose out of the 1960s Free Speech movement and was officially
established in 1981. The program offers around 150 courses on a vast range of subjects that
appeal to the Berkeley student community, including classes on the Rubik’s Cube, blockchain,
web design, metamodernism, cooking, Jewish Art Through the Ages, 3D animation, and bioprinting.In
addition, UC Berkeley is home to a quidditch team, Cal Quidditch. Drawing inspiration from
J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter book series, Cal Quidditch was founded in 2009 and competes
in national tournaments, recently earning a ranking of 24th at US Quidditch Cup 10,
held in Kissimmee, Florida. There are many a cappella groups on campus,
including Drawn to Scale, Artists in Resonance, Berkeley Dil Se, the UC Men’s Octet, the California
Golden Overtones, and Noteworthy. The UC Men’s Octet is an eight-member a cappella group
founded in 1948 featuring a repertoire of barbershop, doo-wop, contemporary pop, modern
alternative, and fight songs. They are one of only two multiple time champions of the
ICCA, having won the championship in both 1998 and 2000. The California Golden Overtones,
founded in 1984, have a very similar repertoire to the Octet. Noteworthy competed in Season
5 of America’s Got Talent. It is a tradition for every Berkeley a cappella group to perform
under the campus’ Sather Gate each week at different times during the week. In addition
to a Capella, Berkeley is host to a myriad of other performing arts groups in comedy,
dance, acting and instrumental music. A few examples include jericho! Improv & Sketch
Comedy, The Movement, Taiko drumming, BareStage student musical theater, the Remedy Music
Project, Main Stacks, AFX Dance, and TruElement. Since 1967, students and staff jazz musicians
have had an opportunity to perform and study with the University of California Jazz Ensembles.
Under the direction of Dr. David W. Tucker, who was hired by the Cal Band as a composer,
arranger, and associate director, but was later asked to direct the jazz ensembles as
it grew in popularity and membership, the group grew rapidly from one big band to multiple
big bands, numerous combos, and numerous instrumental classes with multiple instructors. For several
decades it hosted the Pacific Coast Collegiate Jazz Festival, part of the American Collegiate
Jazz Festival, a competitive forum for student musicians. PCCJF brought jazz luminaries such
as Hubert Laws, Sonny Rollins, Freddie Hubbard, and Ed Shaughnessy to the Berkeley campus
as performers, clinicians, and adjudicators. The festival later included high school musicians.
The jazz ensembles became an effective recruitment tool. Many high school musicians interested
in strong academics as well as jazz found that the campus met both interests. Numerous
alumni have had successful careers in jazz performance and education including Michael
Wolff and Andy Narell. UC Berkeley also hosts a large number of conferences,
talks, and musical and theatrical performances. Many of these events, including the Annual
UC Berkeley Sociological Research Symposium, are completely planned and organized by undergraduate
students.===Athletics===The athletic teams at UC Berkeley are known
as the California Golden Bears (often shortened to “Cal Bears” or just “Cal”) and are primarily
members of the NCAA Division I Pac-12 Conference (Pac-12). Cal is also a member of the Mountain
Pacific Sports Federation in several sports not sponsored by the Pac-12 and the America
East Conference in women’s field hockey. The first school colors, established in 1873 by
a committee of students, were Blue (specifically Yale Blue) and Gold. Yale Blue was originally
chosen because many of the university’s founders were Yale University graduates (for example
Henry Durant, the first university president). Blue and Gold were specified and made the
official colors of the university and the state colors of California in 1955. However,
the athletic department has recently specified a darker blue, close to but not the same as
the Berkeley Blue now used by the school. The California Golden Bears have a long history
of excellence in athletics, having won national titles in football, men’s basketball, baseball,
softball, men’s and women’s crew, men’s gymnastics, men’s tennis, men’s and women’s swimming,
men’s water polo, men’s Judo, men’s track, and men’s rugby. In addition, Cal athletes
have won numerous individual NCAA titles in track, gymnastics, swimming and tennis. On
January 31, 2009, the school’s Hurling club made athletic history by defeating Stanford
in the first collegiate hurling match ever played on American soil.
California finished in first place in the 2007–08 Fall U.S. Sports Academy Directors’
Cup standings (Now the NACDA Directors’ Cup), a competition measuring the best overall collegiate
athletic programs in the country, with points awarded for national finishes in NCAA sports.
Cal finished the 2007–08 competition in seventh place with 1119 points.
Most recently, California finished in third place in the 2010–11 NACDA Directors’ Cup
with 1219.50 points, finishing behind Stanford and Ohio State. This is California’s highest
ever finish in the Director’s Cup.Cal’s seismically unsafe Memorial Stadium reopened September
2012 after a $321 million renovation. The university incurred a controversial $445 million
of debt for the stadium and a new $153 million student athletic center, which it planned
to finance with the sale of special stadium endowment seats. However, in June 2013 news
surfaced that the university has had trouble selling the seats. The roughly $18 million
interest-only annual payments on the debt consumes 20 percent of Cal’s athletics’ budget;
principal repayment begins in 2032 and is scheduled to conclude in 2113.In 2014, Cal
instituted a strict academic standard for an athlete’s admission to the university.
By the 2017 academic year 80 percent of incoming student athletes must comply with the University
of California general student requirement that they have a 3.0 or higher high school
grade point average.====California – Stanford rivalry====The Golden Bears’ traditional arch-rivalry
is with the Stanford Cardinal. The most anticipated sporting event between the two universities
is the annual football game dubbed the Big Game, and it is celebrated with spirit events
on both campuses. Since 1933, the winner of the Big Game has been awarded custody of the
Stanford Axe. Other sporting games between these rivals have related names such as the
Big Splash between the water polo teams.One of the most famous moments in college football
history occurred during the 85th Big Game on November 20, 1982. In what has become known
as “the band play” or simply The Play, Cal scored the winning touchdown in the final
seconds with a kickoff return that involved a series of laterals and the Stanford marching
band rushing onto the field.====National championships====
Berkeley teams have won national championships in baseball (2), men’s basketball (2), men’s
crew (15), women’s crew (3), football (5), men’s golf (1), men’s gymnastics (4), men’s
lacrosse (1), men’s rugby (26), softball (1), men’s swimming & diving (4), women’s swimming
& diving (3), men’s tennis (1), men’s track & field (1), and men’s water polo (13).==Notable alumni, faculty, and staff==As of 2018, 34 alumni and 40 past and present
full-time faculty are counted among the 107 Nobel laureates associated with the university.
The Turing Award, the “Nobel Prize of computer science”, has been awarded to 11 alumni and
12 past and present full-time faculty, with Dana Scott being an alumnus and a faculty
member.===Faculty===
Shiing-Shen Chern, a leading geometer of the 20th century and a faculty member of the Berkeley
mathematics department, co-founded the renowned Mathematical Sciences Research Institute at
Berkeley in 1981 and served as the founding Director until 1984. Berkeley physicist J.
Robert Oppenheimer was the scientific director of the Manhattan Project that developed the
first atomic bomb in the world during World War II, and was the founder of the Berkeley
Center for Theoretical Physics. Faculty member Edward Teller was (together with Stanislaw
Ulam) the “father of the hydrogen bomb”, who laid important foundations for the establishment
of Space Sciences Laboratory at Berkeley. Ernest Lawrence, a Nobel laureate in physics
who invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, and founded the Radiation Laboratory on campus,
which later became the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Nobel laureate Glenn T. Seaborg
discovered or co-discovered 10 chemical elements at Berkeley and served as the Chancellor of
UC Berkeley from 1958–1961. Former United States Secretary of Energy and Nobel laureate
Steven Chu (PhD 1976), was Director of Berkeley Lab, 2004–2009. Janet Yellen, the 15th Chair
of the Federal Reserve Board, is a professor emeritus at Berkeley Haas School of Business
and the Department of Economics.===Alumni===
Berkeley alumni have served in a range of prominent government offices, both domestic
and foreign, including Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court (Earl Warren,
BA, JD); United States Attorney General (Edwin Meese III, JD); United States Secretary of
State (Dean Rusk, LL.B.); United States Secretary of the Treasury (W. Michael Blumenthal, BA);
United States Secretary of Defense (Robert McNamara, BS); United States Secretary of
the Interior (Franklin Knight Lane, 1887); United States Secretary of Transportation
and United States Secretary of Commerce (Norman Mineta, BS); United States Secretary of Agriculture
(Ann Veneman, MPP); scores of federal judges and members of the United States Congress
and United States Foreign Service; governors of California (George C. Pardee; Hiram W.
Johnson; Earl Warren, BA and LL.B; Jerry Brown, BA; and Pete Wilson, JD), Michigan (Jennifer
Granholm, BA), and the United States Virgin Islands (Walter A. Gordon, BA); Chief of Staff
of the United States Army (Frederick C. Weyand, Class of 1938); Lieutenant General of the
United States Army (Jimmy Doolittle); Vice Admiral of the United States Navy (Murry L.
Royar, Class of 1916); Major General of the United States Marine Corps (Oliver Prince
Smith); Brigadier General of the United States Marine Corps (Bertram A. Bone); Director of
the Central Intelligence Agency and Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission (John A. McCone,
BS); chair and members of the Council of Economic Advisors (Michael Boskin, BA, PhD.; Sandra
Black, BA; Jesse Rothstein, PhD; Robert Seamans, PhD; Jay Shambaugh, PhD; James Stock, MA,
PhD); Governor of the Federal Reserve System (H. Robert Heller, PhD) and President and
CEO of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (William Dudley, PhD); Commissioners of the
SEC (Troy A. Paredes, BA) and the FCC (Rachelle Chong, BA); and United States Surgeon General
(Kenneth P. Moritsugu, MPH). Foreign alumni include the President of Colombia
1922–1926, (Pedro Nel Ospina Vázquez, BA, Mining Engineering); the President of Mexico
(Francisco I. Madero, attended 1892–93); the President and Prime Minister of Pakistan;
the Premier of the Republic of China (Sun Fo, BA); the President of Costa Rica (Miguel
Angel Rodriguez, MA, PhD); and members of parliament of the United Kingdom (House of
Lords, Lydia Dunn, Baroness Dunn, BS), India (Rajya Sabha, the upper house, Prithviraj
Chavan, MS), and Iran (Mohammad Javad Larijani, PhD).
Alumni have also served in many supranational posts, notable among which are President of
the World Bank (Robert McNamara, BS); Deputy Prime Minister of Spain and Managing Director
of the International Monetary Fund (Rodrigo Rato, MBA); Executive Director of UNICEF (Ann
Veneman, MPP); member of the European Parliament (Bruno Megret, MS); and judge of the World
Court (Joan Donoghue, JD). Alumni have made important contributions to
science. Some have concentrated their studies on the very small universe of atoms and molecules.
Nobel laureate William F. Giauque (BS 1920, PhD 1922) investigated chemical thermodynamics,
Nobel laureate Willard Libby (BS 1931, PhD 1933) pioneered radiocarbon dating, Nobel
laureate Willis Lamb (BS 1934, PhD 1938) examined the hydrogen spectrum, Nobel laureate Hamilton
O. Smith (BA 1952) applied restriction enzymes to molecular genetics, Nobel laureate Robert
Laughlin (BA math 1972) explored the fractional quantum Hall effect, and Nobel laureate Andrew
Fire (BA math 1978) helped to discover RNA interference-gene silencing by double-stranded
RNA. Nobel laureate Glenn T. Seaborg (PhD 1937) collaborated with Albert Ghiorso (BS
1913) to discover 12 chemical elements, such as americium, berkelium, and californium.
David Bohm (PhD 1943) discovered Bohm Diffusion. Nobel laureate Yuan T. Lee (PhD 1965) developed
the crossed molecular beam technique for studying chemical reactions. Carol Greider (PhD 1987),
professor of molecular biology and genetics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine,
was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in medicine for discovering a key mechanism in the genetic
operations of cells, an insight that has inspired new lines of research into cancer. Harvey
Itano (BS 1942) conducted breakthrough work on sickle cell anemia that marked the first
time a disease was linked to a molecular origin. While he was valedictorian of UC Berkeley’s
class of 1942, he was unable to attend commencement exercises due to internment. Narendra Karmarkar
(PhD 1983) is known for the interior point method, a polynomial algorithm for linear
programming known as Karmarkar’s algorithm. National Medal of Science laureate Chien-Shiung
Wu (PhD 1940), often known as the “Chinese Madame Curie,” disproved the Law of Conservation
of Parity for which she was awarded the inaugural Wolf Prize in Physics. Kary Mullis (PhD 1973)
was awarded the 1993 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his role in developing the polymerase
chain reaction, a method for amplifying DNA sequences. Daniel Kahneman was awarded the
2002 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics for his work in Prospect theory. Richard O. Buckius,
engineer, Bachelor’s in Mechanical Engineering ’72, Masters ’73, PhD ’75, currently Chief
Operating Officer of the National Science Foundation. Edward P. Tryon (PhD 1967) is
the physicist who first said our universe originated from a quantum fluctuation of the
vacuum.John N. Bahcall (BS 1956) worked on the Standard Solar Model and the Hubble Space
Telescope, resulting in a National Medal of Science. Peter Smith (BS 1969) was the principal
investigator and project leader for the NASA robotic explorer Phoenix, which physically
confirmed the presence of water on the planet Mars for the first time. Astronauts James
van Hoften (BS 1966), Margaret Rhea Seddon (BA 1970), Leroy Chiao (BS 1983), and Rex
Walheim (BS 1984) have orbited the earth in NASA’s fleet of space shuttles.
Undergraduate alumni have founded or cofounded such companies as Apple Computer, Intel, LSI
Logic The Gap, MySpace, PowerBar, Berkeley Systems, Bolt, Beranek and Newman (which created
a number of underlying technologies that govern the Internet), Chez Panisse, GrandCentral
(known now as Google Voice), HTC Corporation, VIA Technologies, Marvell Technology Group,
MoveOn.org, Opsware, RedOctane, Rimon Law P.C., SanDisk, Scharffen Berger Chocolate
Maker, VMware and Zilog, while graduate school alumni have cofounded companies such as DHL,
KeyHole Inc (known now as Google Earth), Sun Microsystems, and The Learning Company. Berkeley
alumni have also led various technology companies such as Electronic Arts, Google, Adobe Systems,
Softbank (Masayoshi Son) and Qualcomm. Berkeley alumni have developed a number of
key technologies associated with the personal computer and the Internet. Unix was created
by alumnus Ken Thompson (BS 1965, MS 1966) along with colleague Dennis Ritchie. Alumni
such as L. Peter Deutsch (PhD 1973), Butler Lampson (PhD 1967), and Charles P. Thacker
(BS 1967) worked with Ken Thompson on Project Genie and then formed the ill-fated US Department
of Defense-funded Berkeley Computer Corporation (BCC), which was scattered throughout the
Berkeley campus in non-descript offices to avoid anti-war protestors. After BCC failed,
Deutsch, Lampson, and Thacker joined Xerox PARC, where they developed a number of pioneering
computer technologies, culminating in the Xerox Alto that inspired the Apple Macintosh.
In particular, the Alto used a computer mouse, which had been invented by Doug Engelbart
(B.Eng 1952, Ph.D. 1955). Thompson, Lampson, Engelbart, and Thacker all later received
a Turing Award. Also at Xerox PARC was Ronald V. Schmidt (BS 1966, MS 1968, PhD 1971), who
became known as “the man who brought Ethernet to the masses”. Another Xerox PARC researcher,
Charles Simonyi (BS 1972), pioneered the first WYSIWIG word processor program and was recruited
personally by Bill Gates to join the fledgling company known as Microsoft to create Microsoft
Word. Simonyi later became the first repeat space tourist, blasting off on Russian Soyuz
rockets to work at the International Space Station orbiting the earth.
In 1977, a graduate student in the computer science department named Bill Joy (MS 1982)
assembled the original Berkeley Software Distribution, commonly known as BSD Unix. Joy, who went
on to co-found Sun Microsystems, also developed the original version of the terminal console
editor vi, while Ken Arnold (BA 1985) created Curses, a terminal control library for Unix-like
systems that enables the construction of text user interface (TUI) applications. Working
alongside Joy at Berkeley were undergraduates William Jolitz (BS 1997) and his future wife
Lynne Jolitz (BA 1989), who together created 386BSD, a version of BSD Unix that runs on
Intel CPUs and evolved into the BSD family of free operating systems and the Darwin operating
system underlying Apple Mac OS X. Eric Allman (BS 1977, MS 1980) created SendMail, a Unix
mail transfer agent that delivers about 12% of the email in the world.The XCF, an undergraduate
research group located in Soda Hall, has been responsible for a number of notable software
projects, including GTK+ (created by Peter Mattis, BS 1997), The GIMP (Spencer Kimball,
BS 1996), and the initial diagnosis of the Morris worm. In 1992, Pei-Yuan Wei, an undergraduate
at the XCF, created ViolaWWW, one of the first graphical web browsers. ViolaWWW was the first
browser to have embedded scriptable objects, stylesheets, and tables. In the spirit of
Open Source, he donated the code to Sun Microsystems, inspiring Java applets( Kim Polese (BS 1984)
was the original product manager for Java at Sun Microsystems.) ViolaWWW also inspired
researchers at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications to create the Mosaic web browser,
a pioneering web browser that became Microsoft Internet Explorer. Alumni collectively have won at least eight
Pulitzer Prizes. Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist Marguerite Higgins (BA 1941) was
a pioneering female war correspondent who covered World War II, the Korean War, and
the Vietnam War. Novelist Robert Penn Warren (MA 1927) won three Pulitzer Prizes, including
one for his novel All the King’s Men, which was later made into an Academy Award-winning
movie. Pulitzer Prize–winning cartoonist Rube Goldberg (BS 1904) invented the comically
complex—yet ultimately trivial—contraptions known as Rube Goldberg machines. Journalist
Alexandra Berzon (MA 2006) won a Pulitzer Prize in 2009, and journalist Matt Richtel
(BA 1989), who also coauthors the comic strip Rudy Park under the pen name of “Theron Heir”,
won the 2010 Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting. Pulitzer Prize-winning historian Leon Litwack
(BA 1951, PhD 1958) taught as a professor at UC Berkeley for 43 years; three other UC
Berkeley professors have also received the Pulitzer Prize. Alumna and professor Susan
Rasky won the Polk Award for journalism in 1991. USC Professor and UC Berkeley alumna
Viet Thanh Nguyen’s (PhD 1997) first novel The Sympathizer won the 2016 Pulitzer Prize
for FictionAlumni have also written novels and screenplays that have attracted Oscar-caliber
talent, including The Call of the Wild author Jack London. Irving Stone (BA 1923) wrote
the novel Lust for Life, which was later made into an Academy Award–winning film of the
same name starring Kirk Douglas as Vincent van Gogh. Stone also wrote The Agony and the
Ecstasy, which was later made into a film of the same name starring Oscar winner Charlton
Heston as Michelangelo. Mona Simpson (BA 1979) wrote the novel Anywhere But Here, which was
later made into a film of the same name starring Oscar-winning actress Susan Sarandon. Terry
McMillan (BA 1986) wrote How Stella Got Her Groove Back, which was later made into a film
of the same name starring Oscar-nominated actress Angela Bassett. Randi Mayem Singer
(BA 1979) wrote the screenplay for Mrs. Doubtfire, which starred Oscar-winning actor Robin Williams
and Oscar-winning actress Sally Field. Audrey Wells (BA 1981) wrote the screenplay The Truth
About Cats & Dogs, which starred Oscar-nominated actress Uma Thurman. James Schamus (BA 1982,
MA 1987, PhD 2003) has collaborated on screenplays with Oscar-winning director Ang Lee on the
Academy Award-winning movies Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon and Brokeback Mountain. Collectively, alumni have won at least 20
Academy Awards. Gregory Peck (BA 1939), nominated for four Oscars during his career, won an
Oscar for acting in To Kill a Mockingbird. Chris Innis (BA 1991) won the 2010 Oscar for
film editing for her work on best picture winner, The Hurt Locker. Walter Plunkett (BA
1923 ) won an Oscar for costume design (for An American in Paris). Freida Lee Mock (BA
1961) and Charles H. Ferguson (BA 1978) have each won an Oscar for documentary filmmaking.
Mark Berger (BA 1964) has won four Oscars for sound mixing and is an adjunct professor
at UC Berkeley. Edith Head (BA 1918), who was nominated for 34 Oscars during her career,
won eight Oscars for costume design. Joe Letteri (BA 1981) has won four Oscars for Best Visual
Effects in the James Cameron film Avatar and the Peter Jackson films King Kong, The Two
Towers, and The Return of the King.Alumni have collectively won at least 25 Emmy Awards:
Jon Else (BA 1968) for cinematography; Andrew Schneider (BA 1973) for screenwriting; Linda
Schacht (BA 1966, MA 1981), two for broadcast journalism; Christine Chen (dual BA’s 1990),
two for broadcast journalism; Kristen Sze (BA), two for broadcast journalism; Kathy
Baker (BA 1977), three for acting; Ken Milnes (BS 1977), four for broadcasting technology;
and Leroy Sievers (BA), twelve for production. Elisabeth Leamy is the recipient of 13 Emmy
awards. Alumni have acted in classic television series
that are still broadcast on TV today. Karen Grassle (BA 1965) played the mother Caroline
Ingalls in Little House on the Prairie, Jerry Mathers (BA 1974) starred in Leave it to Beaver,
and Roxann Dawson (BA 1980) portrayed B’Elanna Torres on Star Trek: Voyager.
Former undergraduates have participated in the contemporary music industry, such as Grateful
Dead bass guitarist Phil Lesh, The Police drummer Stewart Copeland, Rolling Stone Magazine
founder Jann Wenner, The Bangles lead singer Susanna Hoffs (BA 1980), Counting Crows lead
singer Adam Duritz, electronic music producer Giraffage, MTV correspondent Suchin Pak (BA
1997), AFI musicians Davey Havok and Jade Puget (BA 1996), and solo artist Marié Digby
(Say It Again). People Magazine included Third Eye Blind lead singer and songwriter Stephan
Jenkins (BA 1987) in the magazine’s list of 50 Most Beautiful People.Alumni have also
participated in the world of sports. Tennis athlete Helen Wills Moody (BA 1925) won 31
Grand Slam titles, including eight singles titles at Wimbledon. Tarik Glenn (BA 1999)
is a Super Bowl XLI champion. Michele Tafoya (BA 1988) is a sports television reporter
for ABC Sports and ESPN. Sports agent Leigh Steinberg ( BA 1970, JD 1973) has represented
professional athletes such as Steve Young, Troy Aikman, and Oscar de la Hoya; Steinberg
has been called the real-life inspiration for the title character in the Oscar-winning
film Jerry Maguire (portrayed by Tom Cruise). Matt Biondi (BA 1988) won eight Olympic gold
medals during his swimming career, in which he participated in three different Olympics.
At the Beijing Olympics in 2008, Natalie Coughlin (BA 2005) became the first American female
athlete in modern Olympic history to win six medals in one Olympics.
Berkeley alumni—often generous benefactors—have long been among the billionaire ranks, giving
rise to many of the campus’ eponymous schools, pavilions, centers, institutes, and halls,
with some of the more prominent being J. Paul Getty, Sanford Diller and Helen Diller, Donald
Fisher, and members of the Haas (Walter A. Haas, Rhoda Haas Goldman, Walter A. Haas Jr.,
Peter E. Haas, Bob Haas), Hearst, and Bechtel families. There are at least 18 living alumni
billionaires: Masayoshi Son (SoftBank), Gordon Moore (Intel founder), James Harris Simons,
Jon Stryker (Stryker Medical Equipment), Bill Joy (computer programmer and Sun Microsystems
founder), Eric Schmidt (Google Chairman), Michael Milken, Bassam Alghanim (wealthiest
Kuwaiti), Kutayba Alghanim, Charles Simonyi (Microsoft), Cher Wang (HTC, wealthiest Taiwanese),
Robert Haas (Levi Strauss & Co.), Carlos Rodriguez-Pastor (Interbank, Peru), Fayez Sarofim, Daniel S.
Loeb, Paul Merage, Victor Koo, and Lowell Milken.==See also==Higher Education Recruitment Consortium
Pacific Film Archive University of California Museum of Paleontology
2017 Berkeley protests University of California==
Notes and references====
Further reading and viewing==Brechin, Gray (1999). Imperial San Francisco.
UC Press Ltd. ISBN 0-520-21568-0. Cerny, Susan Dinkelspiel (2001). Berkeley
Landmarks: An Illustrated Guide to Berkeley, California’s Architectural Heritage. Berkeley
Architectural Heritage Association. ISBN 0-9706676-0-4. Freeman, Jo (2003). At Berkeley in the Sixties:
The Education of an Activist, 1961–1965. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-21622-2.
Helfand, Harvey (2001). University of California, Berkeley. Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN
1-56898-293-3. Owens, MFEM (2004). America’s Best Value Colleges.
The Princeton Review. ISBN 0-375-76373-2. Rorabaugh, W. J. (1990). Berkeley at War:
The 1960s. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506667-7. Wiseman, Frederick (Director) (2013). At Berkeley
(Motion picture). Zipporah Films. Wong, Geoffrey (May 2001). A Golden State
of Mind. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 1-55212-635-8.==External links==
Official website California Bears Athletics website
“California, University of”. Collier’s New Encyclopedia. 1921.
“University of California”. The New Student’s Reference Work. 1914.
University of California, Berkeley at Curlie