University of Amsterdam | Wikipedia audio article

University of Amsterdam | Wikipedia audio article

October 10, 2019 0 By Stanley Isaacs


The University of Amsterdam (abbreviated as
UvA, Dutch: Universiteit van Amsterdam) is a public university located in Amsterdam,
Netherlands. The UvA is one of two large, publicly funded
research universities in the city, the other being the VU University Amsterdam (VU). Established in 1632 by municipal authorities
and later renamed for the city of Amsterdam, the University of Amsterdam is the third-oldest
university in the Netherlands. It is one of the largest research universities
in Europe with 31,186 students, 4,794 staff, 1,340 PhD students and an annual budget of
€600 million. It is the largest university in the Netherlands
by enrollment. The main campus is located in central Amsterdam,
with a few faculties located in adjacent boroughs. The university is organised into seven faculties:
Humanities, Social and Behavioural Sciences, Economics and Business, Science, Law, Medicine,
and Dentistry. The University of Amsterdam has produced six
Nobel Laureates and five prime ministers of the Netherlands. The University of Amsterdam has been placed
in the top 100 universities in the world by four major ranking tables. By the QS World University Rankings it was
ranked 50th in the world, 15th in Europe, and 1st in the Netherlands in 2014. The university placed in the top 50 worldwide
in seven fields in the 2011 QS World University Rankings in the fields of linguistics, sociology,
philosophy, geography, science, Economics and econometrics, and accountancy and finance. In 2018 and 2019 the two departments of Media
and Communication were commonly ranked 1st in the world by subject by QS Ranking. Close ties are harbored with other institutions
internationally through its membership in the League of European Research Universities
(LERU), the Institutional Network of the Universities from the Capitals of Europe (UNICA), European
University Association (EUA), the International Student Exchange Programs (ISEP), and Universitas
21.==History=====
Athenaeum Illustre (1632–1877)===In January 1632, the Athenaeum Illustre of
Amsterdam (Latin: Illustrious School of Amsterdam) was founded by the municipal authorities in
Amsterdam. It was mainly devoted to medical teaching. The first two professors were Gerardus Vossius
and Caspar Barlaeus. The Athenaeum Illustre
provided education comparable to other higher education institutions, although it could
not confer doctoral degrees. After training at the Athenaeum, students
could complete their education at a university in another town. At the time, Amsterdam also housed several
other institutions of higher education, including the Collegium Chirugicum, which trained surgeons,
and other institutions that provided theological courses for the Remonstrant and the Mennonite
communities. Amsterdam’s large degree of religious freedom
allowed for the establishment of these institutions. Students of the Colegium Chirugicum and the
theological institutions regularly attended classes at the Athenaeum Illustre. In 1815 it was given the statutory obligation
“to disseminate taste, civilisation and learning” and “to replace, at least in part,
the institutes of higher education and an academic education for those young men whose
circumstances unable them to fully spend the time necessary for an academic career at an
institute of higher education.” The Athenaeum began offering classes for students
attending non-academic professional training in pharmacy and surgery in 1800. The Athenaeum Illustre largely worked together
with Amsterdam’s theological institutions such as the Evangelisch-Luthers Seminarium
(evangelical-Lutheran) and the Klinische School (medical school), the successor to the Collegium
Chirurgicum. The Athenaeum remained a small institution
until the 19th century, with no more than 250 students and eight professors. Alumni of the Athenaeum include Cornelis Petrus
Tiele.===Municipal university (1877–1961)===
In 1877, the Athenuem Illustre became the Municipal University of Amsterdam and received
the right to confer doctoral degrees. This gave the university the same privileges
as national universities while being funded by the city of Amsterdam. The professors and lecturers were appointed
by the municipal council. This resulted in a staff that was in many
ways more colorful than the staffs of national universities. During its time as a municipal university,
the university flourished, in particular in the science department, which counted many
Nobel prize winners: Tobias Asser, Christiaan Eijkman, Jacobus Henricus van ‘t Hoff, Johannes
Diderik van der Waals, Pieter Zeeman, and Frits Zernike. The University of Amsterdam’s municipal status
brought about the relatively early addition of the faculties of Economics and Social Sciences. After the World War II the dramatic rise in
the cost of university education put a constraint on the university’s growth.===National university (1961–present)===
In 1961, the national government made the university a national university, giving it
its current name, the University of Amsterdam. Funding was now given by the national government
instead of the city and the appointment of professors was transferred to the board of
governors. The city of Amsterdam retained a limited influence
until 1971, when the appointment was handed over to the executive board. During May 1969, the university became the
focus of nationwide news when UvA’s administrative centre at the Maagdenhuis was occupied by
hundreds of students who wanted more democratic influence in educational and administrative
matters. The protest lasted for days and was eventually
broken up by the police. During the 1970s and 1980s, the university
was often the target of nationwide student actions. The university saw considerable expansion
since becoming a national university, from 7,500 students in 1960 to over 32,000 in 2010. In 2007, UvA undertook the construction of
the Science Park Amsterdam, a 70 hectare campus to house the Faculty of Science along with
the new University Sports Center. Much of the park has now been completed. The University of Amsterdam began working
in close collaboration with the Hogeschool van Amsterdam. In 2008, the University of Amsterdam and VU
University jointly founded the Amsterdam University College (AUC), an interuniversity institute
that offers a three-year Bachelor (Honors) program in the Liberal Arts
and Sciences.====2015 student and staff protests====In February 2015, the university experienced
occupations of two of their buildings in protest over proposed budget cuts. These budget cuts occurred in the wake of
the university’s attempt to deal with its speculative misjudgments and financial difficulties:
in 2011, the university’s total outstanding debt had increased to €136 million. The Bungehuis occupation ended with the arrest
of the 46 protesters on 24 February 2015. The following day a group of protesters forced
the door of the Maagdenhuis, the main administrative building of the UvA, and began occupying it,
once again raising their demands. The occupation lasted 45 days; the occupiers
were evicted on 11 April.===University logo===
The current logo of the University of Amsterdam consists of a black square with three white
Saint Andrew’s Crosses and a white “U.” This an adaptation of the coat of arms of
Amsterdam which also uses a black background and three white or silver Saint Andrew’s Crosses. The three Saint Andrew’s Crosses have been
said to represent the three plagues of Amsterdam: fire, floods, and the Black Death. Another rumor is that they represent three
fords in the River Amstel. These two explanations have no historical
basis, however. It is believed by historians that the coat
of arms of Amsterdam is derived from the coat of arms of Jan Persijn, the lord of Amsterdam
between 1280 and 1282. The “U” represents the word “university” while
the colours and three crosses represent the city of Amsterdam.==Campus==
As a metropolitan institution, the University of Amsterdam has always been housed in old
and new buildings scattered throughout the capital. Because UvA is not a separate, secluded campus,
students and city residents readily mix, allowing Amsterdam to maintain close cultural and academic
ties to the school. The majority of UvA’s buildings lie in the
heart of Amsterdam, with only the faculties of Science, Medicine and Dentistry located
outside the City Centre. The university lies within the largest megalopolis
in the Netherlands, the Randstad, with a population 7.2 million inhabitants.===City Centre===
The administration of the school and most of the faculties are located in the historic
City Centre of Amsterdam, within the canal ring which is itself a UNESCO World Heritage
Site. The facilities in this area date from as early
as the 15th century to the 21st-century. Architectural styles represented include the
Dutch Renaissance, Dutch Baroque, Art Deco, Amsterdam School, and International style. The Agnietenkapel, Maagdenhuis, Oost-Indisch
Huis, Bushuis, and Oudemanhuispoort are designated as Rijksmonuments (national monuments). The 15th century Agnietenkapel, where the
university was founded was first constructed as a monastery chapel around 1470, but was
later converted for use by the Athenaeum Illustre in 1631. The Agnes Gate in front of the Agnietenkapel
is a major symbol of the university and dates back to 1571. It was renovated and moved to its current
location in 1631. Another area is a former hospital converted
into university buildings, the Binnengasthuis, which is considered the heart of UvA. The Maagdenhuis is the current headquarters
of UvA and HvA administration. The building was built between 1783 and 1787
and was formerly an orphanage. The Oost-Indisch Huis, the former headquarters
of the Dutch East India Company was built in 1606 and now used by UvA. The Oudemanhuispoort was made a university
building in 1880. It was constructed in 1602 as a retirement
house and now houses some departments of the Humanities faculty. One of the buildings of the University Library
complex, the Bushuis, was built as an armory in 1606.===Science Park===
The Faculty of Science is located on the east side of the city at the newly constructed
Science Park Amsterdam. This 70 hectare campus contains UvA’s science
facilities, research institutes, student housing, the University Sports Centre, and businesses. In order to attract distinguished students
and researchers, the campus was built by collaboration between the University of Amsterdam, the City
of Amsterdam, and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research. In 2012, the Amsterdam University College
was housed at the Science Park UvA campus.===Academic Medical Centre===
In the southeastern Bijlmermeer neighbourhood, the Faculty of Medicine is housed in the Academic
Medical Center (AMC), the Faculty of Medicine’s teaching and research hospital. It was formed in 1983 when the UvA Faculty
of Medicine and two hospitals, Binnengasthuis and the Wilhelmina Gasthuis, combined. Shortly after in 1988, the Emma Children’s
Hospital also moved to the AMC. It is one of Amsterdam’s level 1 trauma centers
and strongly cooperates with the VU University Medical Center (VUmc).===Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam
===The Faculty of Dentistry is located in the
Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA) in the southern Zuidas district on the campus
of the VU University Medical Center. It was formed when the University of Amsterdam
and the Vrije Universiteit combined their Dentistry schools in 1984.==Organisation and administration=====
Faculties===The university is divided into seven faculties,
with each faculty headed by a dean. The faculties include the Faculties of Humanities,
Social and Behavioural Sciences, Economics and Business, Science, Law, Medicine, and
Dentistry. Students must be admitted to the faculty of
their program before beginning their studies.====Faculty of Science====
The Faculty of Science (Dutch: Faculteit der Natuurwetenschappen, Wiskunde en Informatica)
(FNWI) consists of four departments with 1200 researchers and lecturers operating in eight
research institutes. The main faculty buildings are located on
the Science Park Amsterdam campus. The faculty was ranked number one in the Netherlands
and 47th internationally in 2011. In terms of research, the faculty produced
1,445 academic publications in 2009.====Faculty of Humanities====
The Faculty of Humanities (Dutch: Faculteit der Geesteswetenschappen) (FGw) comprises
six departments: Dutch studies, History, European Studies and Religion, Archaeology and Classics,
Language and Literature, Media studies, Philosophy, and Art and Cultural studies. With over 6000 students and about 1000 employees,
it is the largest humanities faculty in the Netherlands. It was established in 1997 after a merger
of the Faculty of Language and Culture, the Faculty of Theology and the Faculty of Philosophy. In 2011, the faculty was ranked number one
in the Netherlands for Philosophy and Linguistics with international ranking in these areas
of 37th and 22nd respectively. In terms of research, the faculty produced
726 academic publications in 2009.====Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences
====The Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences
(Dutch: Faculteit der Maatschappij- en Gedragswetenschappen) (FMG) is the largest educational and research
institution in the social and behavioural sciences in the Netherlands. The faculty has approximately 10,000 students
and 1,200 staff members. The Faculty is home to six departments: Political
Science, Sociology and Anthropology, Communication Science, Psychology, Social Geography, Planning
and International Development Studies, and Educational sciences. The faculty was ranked the best in the Netherlands
in 2011 for Sociology and Geography with international rankings in these areas of 33rd and 40th respectively. In terms of research, the faculty produced
1,366 academic publications in 2009.====Faculty of Economics and Business====The Faculty of Economics and Business (Dutch:
Faculteit Economie en Bedrijfskunde) (FEB) was established in 1922. The FEB, which includes the Amsterdam School
of Economics (ASE) and the Amsterdam Business School (ABS), currently has around 4,000 students
and nearly 600 staff. It was ranked 44th in Economics & Econometrics
and 45 in Accountancy & Finance among world universities. In terms of research, the faculty produced
517 academic publications in 2009.====Faculty of Law====
The Faculty of Law (Dutch: Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid) (FdR) is based in the newly redesigned Roetersiland
campus. It was earlier housed in the Oudemanhuispoort,
a historic building dating from 1602 situated in the center of Amsterdam. It has approximately 3,700 students and 330
academic staff members. 58% of academic staff is female. The Faculty offers nine LLM programs, of which
two are taught in English. In addition the Faculty offers three advanced
LLM programs, which are all taught in English. Research at the Faculty is undertaken by five
research institutes which specialize in the following areas: International law, Private
law, Environmental law, Labor law, and Information law. In terms of research, the faculty produced
451 academic publications in 2018. In the 2018 academic year, there were 41 PhD
candidates, 67% of whom were female. In 2015, a bequest from Trudie Vervoort-Jaarsma
to the University established the Julia Henriëtte Jaarsma-Adolfs scholarship fund for assisting
students pursuing an LLM in the law faculty. The bequest of €4 million was the largest
single donation left to a Dutch university by a private citizen and was made to honor
her mother’s legal career. A second scholarship in the name of Vervoort-Jaarsma’s
daughter, Madeleine Vervoort, provides travel funds to students.====Faculty of Medicine====
The Faculty of Medicine (Dutch: Faculteit der Geneeskunde) (FdG), each year, approximately
350 first-year students begin their study of medicine at the Academic Medical Center. The first, three-year phase consists mainly
of thematic teaching. The second, also three-year phase consists
of training internships in and outside of the AMC. In terms of research, the faculty produced
3,206 academic publications in 2009.====Faculty of Dentistry====
The Academic Center for Dentistry in Amsterdam (Dutch: Faculteit der Tandheelkunde) (ACTA)
was founded in 1984 through a merger of the two dentistry faculties of the Universiteit
of Amsterdam and the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. ACTA conducts scientific research, teaches,
and provides patient care in the field of dentistry. ACTA is one of the largest dentistry education
and training programmes in the world, with 500 staff members, an annual new-student enrolment
of 128 and a total student body of 1000. It consists of three departments. In terms of research, the faculty produced
228 academic publications in 2009.===Administration===The University of Amsterdam is headed by an
executive board. The university is then divided into seven
faculties, with each faculty headed by a dean. Teaching and research are carried out in various
departments and institutes within the individual faculties. UvA has an annual budget of €600 million
(approximately $850 million),.In 1992, the board of governors of the University of Amsterdam
set up the UvA Holding BV in order to bring its commercial activities into a form that
is compatible with private law. The University of Amsterdam holds all the
shares of the subsidiaries of the holding. The subsidiaries are clustered into four activity
areas which are increasingly outsourced to commercial enterprises and other market participants.===International cooperation===
The intellectual and cultural atmosphere at UvA is internationally oriented. Amsterdam attracts students from the Netherlands
and beyond: with over 2,500 international students and researchers from over 100 countries. UvA has an extensive network of foreign partner
universities, facilitating student and staff exchanges. Within Europe, UvA has Socrates/Erasmus exchange
agreements with over 200 institutions. Outside Europe, it has close ties with approximately
40 universities on all continents.==Academics==The university is accredited by the Dutch
Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, which grants accreditation to institutions
who meet a national system of regulations and quality assurance controls. The Ministry has given it WO, or research
university status. Dutch students must complete a six-year preparatory
program to gain admission to national research universities. Only fifteen percent of students pass this
preparatory program. In terms of tuition in 2015-2016, EU full-time
students are charged €1,951 per year for both Bachelor’s and Master’s programs, part-time
students are charged €1,696 and non-EU students are charged between €9,000-€25,000 per
year for Bachelor’s programs and €10,500-€25,000 for Master’s and Doctoral programs. Costs for non-EU students varies depending
on the faculty of matriculation. In terms of scholarships, the university offers
the UvA Amsterdam Excellence Scholarship (AES), Amsterdam Merit Scholarships, scholarships
through the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, Dutch Study Grants, and various
European scholarships.Collectively the faculties offer 59 Bachelor’s programmes, 133 Master’s
programmes, and 10 postgraduate programs. The university awarded 2,565 propaedeutic,
3,204 Bachelor’s, 3,990 Master’s, 438 Doctoral, 242 Post-Doctoral degrees in 2009-2010, and
10,438 total degrees in 2009-2010. The school’s academic year lasts from early
September until mid-July and is divided into two 20-week semesters. The first of these ends in late January and
the second begins in early February. There are no mid-term breaks, only a short
holiday around Christmas and New Year as well as Dutch National holidays.===Student body===
In 2010, the university had an enrolment of 32,739 students: 20,185 undergraduate students,
9,361 master’s students, 1,235 doctoral students, and 412 post-doctoral students. Of all students, 93.4% are Dutch citizens
and 6.6% are international students. UvA has over 2,500 international students
and researchers that come from over 100 countries. Full-time students comprised 91% of the student
body. In 2010 students were enrolled in 7 faculties
and the Amsterdam University College: 24% in Humanities, 13% in Law, 7% in Medicine,
1% in Dentistry, 11% in Science, 13% in Economics & Business, 30% in Social & Behavioral Sciences,
and 0.5% in the Amsterdam University College.Overall, 20% of students in bachelor’s programs complete
their degree within three years, 48% in four years, and 69% in five years; 71% of master’s
students completed their degree in two years. Students on average successfully complete
44 ECTS credits during the academic year. In 2007, 88% of master’s and doctoral graduates
went on to paying jobs, with an additional 5% going on to continue their education within
1.5 years of graduating.===University rankings===
On a subject basis the QS World University Rankings ranked the university in the top
75 in four out of five of the domains: Social Sciences & Management (41), Arts & Humanities
(43), Life Sciences & Medicine (69) and Natural Sciences (75).The 2011-12 Times Higher Education
World University Rankings ranked the University of Amsterdam 30th in Arts & Humanities and
40th in Social Sciences, making it the highest ranking Dutch university in these fields and
the highest ranking continental European university in the Social Sciences.The 2017 CWTS Leiden
Global university ranking ranked the University of Amsterdam in the Global Top 8 in the field
of social sciences and humanities.[1] The CHE Excellence Ranking rated the school
excellent in all seven categories for research, making it the only Dutch institution to accomplish
this distinction.==Research==The University of Amsterdam is one of Europe’s
largest research universities, with over 7,900 scientific publications in 2010. The university spends about €100 million
on research each year via direct funding. It receives an additional €23 million via
indirect funding and about €49 million from commercial partners. Faculty members often receive research prizes
and grants, such as those from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). Research is organized into fifteen research
priority areas and 28 research institutes within the faculties oversee this research.The
University of Amsterdam has an extensive central University Library (UBA), with over four million
volumes. In addition, a number of departments have
their own libraries. The main university library is located in
the city center. It contains over four million books, 70,000
manuscripts, 500,000 letters, and 125,000 maps, as well as special collections of the
Department of Rare and Precious Works, the Manuscript and Writing Museum, the Bibliotheca
Rosenthaliana on Jewish history and culture, and the Department of Documentation on Social
Movements. Three reading rooms are available for students
to study in quiet. In addition to the main University Library,
there are approximately 70 departmental libraries spread throughout the center of Amsterdam. The university’s printing arm, the Amsterdam
University Press, has a publishing list of over 1,400 titles in both Dutch and English. In addition to its libraries, UvA has five
museums. These include the Allard Pierson Museum, which
houses antiquities from Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, the Near East, and central Italy during
the time between 4000 BCE and 500 CE; the University Museum, with collections showing
the history of UvA from 1632 until present; the Museum Vrolik, which houses anatomical,
zoological and teratological specimens; The J.A. Dortmond Museum of Script which has exhibits
showing the history of writing in the West from 3000 BCE to today; the UvA Computer Museum
which houses displays showing how computers of the past worked and how calculations were
made before the presence of the electronic computer; the Zoological Museum Amsterdam
at the Amsterdam Artis Zoo contains collection of millions of shells, insects, mammals, birds,
fishes and other animals used in scientific research.==Student life==At UvA, students can choose from many student
organizations, athletic activities, and student services. These include the ASVA Student Union, CREA
Cultural Center, the newly constructed University Sports Center, and the Agora student restaurant. In addition, the university provides religious
services, career counseling, the International Student Network (ISN), counseling, disability
services, and student health services. The students are represented in the different
faculty student councils and the central student council. The University Sports Center (USC) offers
over 50 sports activities at discount rates for UvA students and staff including Ice skating,
tennis, rowing, aerobics, swimming, dancing, golf, and even skiing. The CREA Cultural Center organizes courses,
working groups and projects in drama, music, dance, photography, film, and visual arts. It also contains a bar and a theater. The primary mode of transport for students
is by bicycle. The city of Amsterdam also has various public
transportation options available to students. These include the Metro, trams, buses, and
ferries.===Student housing===
The university tries to offer student housing to all students through non-profit Housing
Corporations not owned by UvA. The Housing Corporations offer apartment-style
housing in the City Center, Zuid, Oost, West, Zuid-Oost, and Amsterdam-Noord boroughs of
Amsterdam as well as in the suburb of Diemen. Single rooms with private facilities (kitchen,
bathroom), single rooms with shared facilities, shared rooms with shared facilities, and couples
rooms are available. Students of the opposite sex are permitted
to be roommates in all types of rooms. Rooms are anywhere from a few minutes to 45
minutes bike ride to the City Center.==Notable people and alumni==
Professors and alumni of the University of Amsterdam have included six Nobel Prize winners
and seven Spinoza Prize winners.Notable current and former professors include winner of the
Nobel Peace Prize in 1911 Tobias Asser, mathematician Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer, winner of the
Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1901 Jacobus Henricus van ‘t Hoff, winner of the Nobel Prize for
Physics in 1910 Johannes Diderik van der Waals, winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1902
Pieter Zeeman, and winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1953 Frits Zernike.Alumni in
the Science area include winner of the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1929 Christiaan Eijkman,
inventor of DNA fingerprinting Alec Jeffreys, physician and one of the founding fathers
of gynecology in the Netherlands M.A. Mendes de Leon, astrophysicist and Dutch communist
Anton Pannekoek, string theorist Erik Verlinde, Dutch psychiatrist and World War II resistance
hero Tina Strobos, ESA astronaut André Kuipers, Dutch botanist Hendrik de Wit, and nutrition
education pioneer in Israel, Sarah Bavly.Alumni in the area of Politics include former Prime
Ministers Pieter Cort van der Linden and Joop den Uyl, Belgian prime minister Charles Michel,
former president of the European Central Bank, Minister of Finance, and president of the
Central Bank of the Netherlands Wim Duisenberg, Member of the European Parliament Thijs Berman,
former Secretary General of NATO Joseph Luns, Senate group leader of the Labour Party and
former trade union leader Marleen Barth, president of OHIM Wubbo de Boer, former Minister of
Defence and former European Commissioner for Internal Market & Services Frits Bolkestein,
former Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport Els Borst, state secretary of Health, Welfare
and Sport Jet Bussemaker, Minister of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment Jacqueline
Cramer, Minister of Foreign Trade within the Economic Affairs Frank Heemskerk, Minister
of Justice Ernst Hirsch Ballin, Minister of the Interior and Kingdom Relations Guusje
ter Horst, former Minister of Social Affairs and Employment and currently deputy director
of UNDP Ad Melkert, Minister of Education, Culture and Science Ronald Plasterk and Prime
Minister of Sint Maarten Leona Marlin-Romeo.In the area of the Arts, notable alumni include
cultural analyst Ien Ang, writers Menno ter Braak, Willem Frederik Hermans, J. Slauerhoff,
and Simon Vestdijk, Emmy award-winning producer Michael W. King, and Roman law specialist
Boudewijn Sirks. In the Media area, alumni include Thomas von
der Dunk, Dutch cultural historian, writer, and columnist. Alumni in the area of Sports area include
Max Euwe, 1935–1937 World Chess Champion. Missionary vicar of the Westerkerk Cristina
Pumplun taught at the UvA.==See also==Education in the Netherlands
List of modern universities in Europe (1801–1945) List of universities in the Netherlands
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