University Challenge S45E03 – University of Kent vs University of Newcastle
APPLAUSE University Challenge! Asking the questions, Jeremy Paxman. Hello. Again, tonight, two teams of students have an unparalleled opportunity to show off. Let’s hope they do so. Whichever of them does so the most will find themselves in the second round. As shy as a giant panda, the University of Kent is making a very rare appearance in this contest. One of the so-called plate-glass universities, this year sees it celebrate the 50th anniversary of its Royal Charter. It was called the University of Kent at Canterbury until it changed its name to the present, shorter form, in 2003, to reflect its expansion out of the city to sites in Medway and Tonbridge. Students have the privilege of graduating in ceremonies held at the cathedrals of Canterbury and Rochester. Alumni include several novelists, among them the Booker Prize winner Kazuo Ishiguro, the Booker Prize nominee David Mitchell, and EL James, whose 50 Shades Of Grey amazingly didn’t make the Booker shortlist but did make her lots of money. With an average age of 30, representing around 19,000 students, let’s meet the Kent team. Hello, my name’s Alexander Atmore, I’m from north London, and I’m studying comparative literature. Hello, I’m Emma Isworth, I’m from Tenterden in Kent, and I’m reading for a master’s in medical humanities. And this is their captain. Hello, I’m Caitlin Gilroy, I’m from Durham, and I’m reading physics. Hello, I’m Thomas Cheetham, I’m from Bournemouth, and I’m studying for a master’s in military history. APPLAUSE The University of Newcastle has made a number of robust appearances in this competition without yet taking the title of series champion. Its origins lie in two 19th-century schools, one specialising in surgery and medicine, the other in the physical sciences. These became one arm of the Federal University of Durham, then split across the two cities. The Newcastle colleges merged to form King’s College in 1937, which in turn became the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, later simply Newcastle University. Alumni include the actor and comedian Rowan Atkinson, the singer and songwriter Brian Ferry, and the journalist and broadcaster Kate Adie. With an average age of 28, representing around 23,000 students, let’s meet the Newcastle team. Hello, I’m Alexander Kirkman. I’m from Surrey, and I’m studying biomedical sciences. Hi, I’m Nicholas Smith, I’m originally from Chorley in Lancashire, and I’m studying medicine. And this is their leader. Hello, I’m Tony Richardson, originally from County Durham, and I’m studying for a master’s in International politics. Hi, I’m Kate Bennett, I’m from Chichester, and I’m studying for an MA in film theory and practice. APPLAUSE OK, the rules are unchanging in this competition. Starters are worth ten points, they have to be answered on your own, on the buzzer. Bonuses, you can confer upon. They are worth 15 in total. So, fingers on the buzzers. Here’s your first starter for ten. What single-digit number links the lyric poets of ancient Greece, the historic counties of Ulster, the circles of Dante’s Inferno… – BUZZER
– Kent, Atmore. – Nine.
– Nine is correct, yes. APPLAUSE First set of bonuses for you, then, Kent. They’re on web browsers. Firstly, for five, written by Tim Berners-Lee, the first browser appeared in 1990, and originally had what 12-letter name? It was later changed to Nexus, to avoid confusion with a three-word term denoting the Internet’s leading information retrieval service. – World Wide Web?
– Correct. The first graphical web browser was developed in 1993 at the National Centre for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois. It’s credited with popularising web usage. What was it called? It’s not just the Internet Explorer, is it? – No, that’s Microsoft.
– Oh. I don’t know, I don’t know. – Pass.
– It was called Mosaic. The leading developer of the Mosaic team, Marc Andreessen, went on to create his own company and develop what became the market-leading browser during the mid-1990s. What was that browser called? Opal? No, I don’t know. Try it, try it. Opal? No, it was the Netscape Navigator. Ten points for this. In an essay of 1932, what did Lionel Robbins define as “the science which studies human behaviour “as a relationship between given ends and scarce means “which have alternative uses”? – BUZZER
– Kent, Atmore. Economics. Correct! APPLAUSE Kent, these bonuses are on fun – in the titles of books, that is. Subtitled A Cautionary Tale, My Idea Of Fun is a 1993 novel by which English author? His other works include The Book Of Dave, in 2006, and Shark, in 2014. Will Self. Will Self. – Yes.
– Will Self. Will Self. Will Self. Will Self is correct. A Supposedly Fun Thing I’ll Never Do Again is a collection of essays by which US author, perhaps best known for the novel Infinite Jest? He died in 2008. David Foster Wallace. Correct. We Don’t Play It For Fun is a work on cricket by the former Test match special commentator Don Mosey. Which county side’s name appears in the subtitle? – Just any county?
– Worcestershire? Nottingham. – Choose one. Kent? Kent county?
– OK. – Kent?
– NO! – It had to be Yorkshire, didn’t it?
– LAUGHTER Ten points for this. Noted for its collection of early books and manuscripts, the Chester Beatty Library is a designated national cultural institution in which European capital? – BUZZER
– Newcastle, Richardson.
– Dublin? Dublin is correct, yes. APPLAUSE OK, your first bonuses, Newcastle, are on The Cloudspotter’s Guide, the inaugural publication of The Cloud Appreciation Society. I want you to name the type of cloud, or clouds, you get in each description. Firstly, “rising in brilliant white cauliflower mounds, “it looks more solid and crisply defined than other cloud types.” Cumulus. Correct. Secondly, “their name comes from the Latin for a lock of hair. “For they are the delicate, bright, white wisps of ice “that appear high in the heavens.” – Cirrus.
– Correct. Finally, “the largest examples tend to occur in the tropics. “The energy contained within a cloud like “this has been estimated to be the equivalent “of ten Hiroshima-sized bombs.” – Cumulonimbus?
– Correct. APPLAUSE Right, we’re going to take a picture round. For your picture starter, you’re going to see a hypothetical road sign, showing some of the main tourist attractions and heritage sites in an English county. For ten points, I want you to identify the county. – BUZZER
– Newcastle, Bennett. Staffordshire? Staffordshire is right, yes. – APPLAUSE
– That puts you on level pegging. These bonuses could give you the lead. There are three more hypothetical road signs, Newcastle. In each case, I simply need you to identify the English county in which you’d find all the places of interest shown. Firstly, for five. Wiltshire. No, I think it’s Buckinghamshire. It’s Oxfordshire. Nice one. Yeah, yeah, it is Oxfordshire. Oxfordshire? Correct. Secondly… Yeah, go for that. – Dorset?
– Correct. Finally… – Cheshire.
– Cheshire? Cheshire? Correct, well done. APPLAUSE Another starter question. Answer promptly if you buzz for this. In an alphabetical list of the 12 months of the year, which month comes third? – BUZZER
– Newcastle, Bennett. March. No. Come on, Kent. – BUZZER
– Kent, Gilroy. December? Correct. APPLAUSE Took you almost an embarrassingly long time to work out. LAUGHTER They gave you the time. So, a set of bonuses for you on puppetry, Kent. In which former traditional Japanese puppet theatre do half life-sized dolls act out a chanted narrative? The puppeteers dress in black to symbolise their invisibility. – Nominate Atmore.
– Noh? – No, it’s Bunraku.
– OK. Secondly, using the shadows thrown into a translucent screen by two-dimensional puppets operated by rods, Wayang is a form of traditional drama from which Indonesian island? Is it Sumatra? Java? – Java or Sumatra.
– No idea. – Which is bigger?
– Try Java. – Java.
– Yes! What form of puppet theatre is named in the title of an influential essay of 1810 by Heinrich von Kleist, cited by Philip Pullman as an influence on His Dark Materials trilogy? – Sorry.
– It might be kabuki, I don’t know anything about Kabuki. – Kabuki?
– No, it’s marionette. Ten points for this. Level pegging. What surname is shared by the multimedia artist known for his recurring character, Mr Dobb, and for the manga-influenced super-flat style, and the author of Sputnik Sweetheart and Kafka On The Shore? – BUZZER
– Kent, Atmore. – Murakami?
– Murakami is correct, yes. APPLAUSE You get a set of bonuses, Kent, on optical devices. Used for the production of a polarised light, which optical device is named after the British physicist who invented it in the 1820s? – What’s the device, what’s the optical device, though?
– Prism… Is it a lens, a particular lens? Optical device… the something lens? Huygens? No, it’s Nicol prism. A Nicol prism consists of a rhomboidal crystal of what material, split along a diagonal, and rejoined with Canada balsam resin? What kind of thing would it be? It’s like…silicon? Glass? – Bismuth?
– That’s exotic.
– Opal? Crystal? No, I don’t, I’ve no idea. Bismuth? No, it’s calcite. Born in 1801, which Italian inventor gives his name to a prism used in binoculars and other optical instruments to orient images? Vulcan? Bernoulli? I don’t know anything about this. I can’t help you, too, I’m stuck. Try it? Volto? I dunno. Pass. No, it’s Porro. Ten points for this. What egg-shaped organ forms most of the lateral walls of the third ventricle of the brain? It translates neural impulses from the cerebral cortex to be experienced as the sensation of touch, pain or temperature. Its name in Greek means “inner chamber”. – BUZZER
– Newcastle, Smith. Thalamus. Thalamus is correct, yes. APPLAUSE These bonuses are on eponymous lines. Firstly, after a British naturalist, born in 1823, which boundary line between the Oriental and Australian faunal regions represents an abrupt limit of distribution for many animal groups? 1823. Born in 1823, a naturalist. Don’t know. A contemporary of Darwin. I don’t know. Armstrong? No. Armstrong. – Come on, let’s have an answer.
– Armstrong? No, it’s the Wallace Line, after Alfred Russel Wallace. Secondly, in 1893, which British civil servant gave his name to a boundary line that now marks the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan? – No, we don’t know.
– That’s Sir Mortimer Durand. And finally, named after a politician and social reformer, which line was first introduced in Britain in 1875 and now serves to indicate the internationally-agreed load limit for cargo vessels? Plimsoll. – Correct.
– APPLAUSE It’s a very close match, this. And with the scores on 60 and 65, we’re going to take a music round. For your music starter, you’ll hear a piece of popular music. Ten points if you can give me the name of the singer. # Was it for real? Damn… # – BUZZER
– Kent, Atmore. Craig David. Craig David is right, yes. APPLAUSE That brings you to the lead again, and he is among the select group of people to have been consigned to Room 101 on the television programme with the same name, in which guests try to have their pet hates banished for all eternity. Your music bonuses are three more artists or bands who have suffered the same fate. Five points for each you can name. Firstly, this group, sent to room 101 by Neil Morrissey. # At the good old rock’n’roll road show, I’ve gotta go # Saturday night, Saturday night # Going to rock it up, roll it up # Do it all, have a ball # Saturday night, Saturday night # It’s just a Saturday ni-i-i-ight # It’s just a Saturday ni-i-i-ight # It’s just a Saturday ni-i-i-ight… # The Monkees? – No, it’s the Bay City Rollers.
– LAUGHTER Secondly, this singer, sent to Room 101 by Bill Bailey. # Then the stranger spoke # He said do not fear # I come from a planet a long way from here # And I bring a message # For mankind to hear # And suddenly the sweetest music… # I think it’s Chris De Burgh. – Yes!
– Chris De Burgh? It is Chris De Burgh. And, finally, I want the singer of this band, sent to Room 101 by Mark Steel. # Well, it’s… # Too late… # U2. Yes, it was U2. But we asked for the singer, who was Bono, of course. OK, time for another starter question. Which of Shakespeare’s title characters is described by a subordinate as “of a free and open nature “that thinks men honest but that seem to be so, “and will as tenderly be led by the nose as asses are.” – BUZZER
– Kent, Atmore. Julius Caesar? Nope. – BUZZER
– Newcastle, Smith. – Othello?
– Othello is correct, yes. APPLAUSE Get these bonuses and you will take the lead. They are on communication and signalling systems. In each case, name the system from the description. Firstly, for five… Now rendered largely obsolete by mobile technology, a sign system used by bookmakers at racetracks to convey changes in odds. Ticktack. Correct. Secondly, a method of visual signalling developed by the French engineer Claude Chappe in 1794, and named by him after the Greek, meaning “bearing a sign”? Semaphore? Correct. What surname denotes a form of shorthand or rapid writing based on a phonetic principle? It was first published in 1837 as Stenographic Sound Hand. – Pitman?
– Correct! – Ten points for this.
– APPLAUSE Answer promptly if you buzz in. Give all three of the rhyming words that mean: a device for raising water or compressing gases, a protuberance on the back of a camel, and a sudden economic decline. – BUZZER
– Kent, Cheetham. Pump, hump, dump. Nope. Anyone like to buzz from… – BUZZER
– Newcastle, Kirkman. Pump, hump and slump. Correct. APPLAUSE These bonuses are on an author, Newcastle. In the acknowledgements in her 2012 novel NW which author thanked two computer applications that block Internet access, for “creating the time”, as she put it? Zadie Smith. Correct. Smith’s 2005 novel On Beauty opens with the words “one may as well begin with Jerome’s e-mails to his father.” This line echoes the opening sentence of a book by which author, cited by Smith as her inspiration? It’s a Forster novel. – A Room With A view?
– No, it’s not. Passage To India? – Forster novels?
– I’m sorry, I can’t think of any. A Room With A View. No, I was looking for the author, it’s EM Forster. It’s the beginning of Howard’s End. Which novel, by Zadie Smith, portrays the relationships between three London-based families, the Joneses, Iqbals and Chalfens? It won the Whitbread First Novel award in 2000. White Teeth came out about then… White Teeth. Correct. Ten points at stake for this. – APPLAUSE
– Which large animal phylum is defined by the possession at some stage of the life history of a dorsal neural tube supported by a notochord, pharyngeal slits… – BUZZER
– Newcastle, Kirkman. Vertebrates? No. ..and a post-anal tail? You lose five points, I’m afraid. – Anyone going to buzz from Kent?
– BUZZER They are Chordata, or chordates. Too late, I’ve already answered. Right, ten points for this. What term did the sociologist Ruth Glass coin in 1964 to describe the changing composition of London’s West End from working-class residential neighbourhoods…? – BUZZER
– Newcastle, Richardson. Gentrification? Correct. APPLAUSE These bonuses are on semiconductors, Newcastle. In 1833, which British scientist made the first documented observation of the semiconductor effect? The SI derived unit of electrical capacitance is named after him. We’re sure it’s Faraday. Faraday. Correct. In 1879, which US physicist discovered that charge carriers in solids are deflected in a magnetic field? The effect was subsequently named after him. What’s the name? it’s late 19th century. – No, it’s gone.
– Charles…? Charles. No, it was Edwin Hall. And finally, noted for his work on semiconductors, the German physicist Karl Ferdinand Braun shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics with which Italian electrical engineer whose later work underpins all modern long-distance radio transmission? Marconi. – Correct.
– APPLAUSE We’re now going to take a picture round. For your picture starter, you’ll see a painting. For ten points, I’d like you to give me the name of the artist, please. – BUZZER
– Kent, Isworth. Canaletto? Indeed it is. APPLAUSE That was his painting of the River Thames on Lord Mayor’s Day. You’re going to see three more paintings by Canaletto now for your bonuses, made during his time in Britain. In each case, I want the name of the building depicted. Firstly, this building. Is it, erm…Hampton Court? Is it Hampton Court? Is that Hampton Court? Hampton Court. No, that’s Warwick Castle. Secondly, I want the name of this institution. – That’s Cambridge, isn’t it?
– That’s King’s, Cambridge. King’s Cambridge. King’s College. King’s College, Cambridge? No, it’s similar, but it’s Eton College, and that’s the chapel there. Looks a bit like King’s. And finally, the building to the right of the painting here. Looks like Notre Dame, but that’s in Paris. Is that York Minster? – It is York, I think.
– Is it? Or is it Rippon? Rippon? – No. Oh, maybe…
– I don’t have anything. What was your gut feeling about that – York? – York.
– Try for York. – York Minster?
– No, it’s Westminster Abbey. Ten points for this. What number is obtained by adding the regnal numbers of the victorious Kings at the battles of Bannockburn, the Boyne, and Bosworth? – BUZZER
– Newcastle, Smith. Ten. Anyone like to buzz from Kent? – BUZZER
– Kent, Gilroy. 12? No, it’s 11. It’s Robert I, William III, and Henry VII. Right, ten points for this starter question. One of the most densely populated islands in the world, Salsette is the location of which major city? The birthplace of Rudyard Kipling, Salman Rushdie, and Sachin Tendulkar. – BUZZER
– Newcastle, Richardson. Mumbai. Mumbai, or Bombay, is correct, yes. APPLAUSE these bonuses are on Greek mythology, Newcastle. At the wedding of Peleus and Thetis, Eris, the goddess of strife, threw down an apple, inscribed “for the fairest”. Three deities disputed the apple. One was Hera. Name the other two. – Oh, Aphrodite and…
– Yeah, Aphrodite and… – Was it Athena?
– Yeah. Aphrodite and Athena. Athene, yes. Which son of Priam and Hecuba was appointed by Zeus to resolve the dispute? – Paris?
– Yes, Paris, yeah, yeah. – Paris.
– Correct. All three goddesses attempted to sway Paris with bribes. Hera and Athene offered lands, wisdom and victory in battle, all to no avail. Whom did Aphrodite offer to Paris? – Helen of…
– Troy. – Helen of Troy.
– Or Helen of Sparta, as was her maiden name. APPLAUSE Right, ten points for this. Revived in the late 19th century by the Arts and Crafts movement, an inglenook is a recess in or near what part of the interior of a… – BUZZER
– Kent, Isworth. Fireplace. Fireplace or hearth is correct. APPLAUSE Bonuses, Kent, on British birds, for you. Noted for its distinctive down-curved bill, which large wading bird is the emblem of Northumberland National Park? – Curlew?
– Yeah. – Curlew.
– Correct. A black and white diving bird with a sharp, compressed beak, what is the common name of Alca torda, the emblem of the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park? The guillemot? They live there, don’t they? – Don’t know. Do you know anything?
– No, no. What do you think? – I’ve got no idea.
– Go for it. Shall I go guillemot? – What do you…
– Go on, go on. Guillemot. No, it’s a razorbill. What is the single-word common name of Pandion haliaetus, a fish-eating raptor that is the emblem of the Cairngorms National Park? Could it be an eagle? – What do you think?
– Do you think it’s an eagle? – Cairngorms.
– Cormorant? – Could be cormorant.
– Something that eats fish. – Fish Eagle?
– I don’t know.
– Cormorant or gannet, I don’t know. I’d go cormorant. – Cormorant?
– Yeah, cormorant. Cormorant. No, it’s an osprey. Ten points for this. “Moses, my servant, is dead. “Now, therefore, arise, “go over this Jordan.” These words appear in the first chapter – of which book of the Old Testament?
– BUZZER – Newcastle, Smith.
– Exodus. No. One of you buzzed from Kent? – BUZZER
– Kent, Atmore. Leviticus. No, it’s Joshua. And I’m afraid I’m going to have to penalise you for an interruption, Newcastle. Right, another starter question. Medoc is a wine-producing district on the left bank of which estuary, formed by the confluence of the Dordogne and the Garonne? – BUZZER
– Kent, Isworth. Gironde? Gironde is correct, yes. APPLAUSE Kent, these bonuses are on children’s authors. After his baby son was injured in an accident in 1960, which children’s author was a co-inventor of a valve used in the treatment of children with brain injuries? A Spitz-Holter made the valve. I’ve no idea of the children’s author. – What dates were they?
– 1960. Come on, let’s have it, please. Enid Blyton? No. – Come on, you’ve…
– Pass. It was Roald Dahl. Born in 1866, which children’s author and illustrator was also a prize-winning breeder of Herdwick sheep? Erm, it was Beatrix Potter. That was Potter. – Beatrix Potter.
– Correct. Who was appointed Secretary of the Bank of England in 1898? Ten years later he resigned and published the children’s novel for which he’s best known. – Was it Kipling?
– Come on! – Yeah. No, it’s not him.
– No idea. Kipling? No, it was Kenneth Grahame. Ten points for this. The figure of the Bodhisattva, one who seeks enlightenment for the sake of all beings, is central to the Mahayana tradition of… – BUZZER
– Newcastle, Smith. – Buddhism.
– Buddhism is correct.
– APPLAUSE These bonuses are on ballet. In each case, name the ballet in which the following pairs of female characters are rivals. Firstly, Nikiya, in love with Solor, and the Rajah’s daughter, Gamzatti. Nope, no idea. That was The Temple Dancer. And secondly, the half-sisters Princess Rose and Princess Epine. No idea? – The Firebird?
– No, it’s The Prince Of The Pagodas. Finally, the sorcerer’s daughter, Odile, and the transformed Princess Odette. Swan Lake. – Swan Lake.
– APPLAUSE Another starter question now. In chemistry, atoms of which three elements are present in the cyanate functional group? – BUZZER
– Newcastle, Smith. Hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Nope. – BUZZER
– Kent, Gilroy. Hydrogen, carbon and nitro… No, it’s nitrogen, carbon and oxygen. Ten points for this. The subject of a poem by Andrew Marvell, which Atlantic island was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English colonists? It’s now a British overseas territory? BUZZER GONG APPLAUSE And the answer, of course, is Bermuda. Which you may have been about to buzz in and say, but I’m afraid you were beaten to it by the gong. You were just altogether a little too slow, I think, Kent, to get back on terms with Newcastle. But nonetheless, 115 is a perfectly reasonable score. I’m sorry, we’re going to have to say goodbye to you. Congratulations, Newcastle. We’ll look forward to seeing you in Round Two. You’re also going to have to be a bit quicker in Round Two, I think. I hope you can join us next time for another first-round match. But until then, it’s goodbye from Kent University. ALL: Goodbye! It’s goodbye from Newcastle University. ALL: Goodbye. And it’s goodbye from me. Goodbye. APPLAUSE Subtitles by Ericsson