University Challenge S44E31 Gonville and Caius, Cambridge vs Magdalen, Oxford
APPLAUSE University Challenge. Asking the questions, Jeremy Paxman. Hello, we’ve already seen the team from St Peter’s College, Oxford, become the first to qualify for the semifinals by winning the two quarterfinal matches required under our Draconian rules. And they’ll be joined by whichever team wins tonight because each of them has already won a quarterfinal. The losers will have to play and win another match to reach the semis. Now, the team representing Gonville & Caius College, Cambridge, had convincing wins over St Anne’s College, Oxford, and Manchester University in rounds one and two and then in their first quarterfinal, they steam-rollered Durham University winning by 275 points to 95. Let’s let them remind us who they are. Hi, I’m Ted. I’m from London and I’m studying law. Hello, I’m Michael, from Ballymena in Northern Ireland and I’m studying for a PhD in history. And this is their captain. Hi, I’m Anthony. I’m from Hertfordshire and I’m studying medicine. Hi, I’m Jeremy. I’m from Southampton and I am reading natural sciences. APPLAUSE The team from Magdalen College, Oxford, also had decisive victories in their first and second round matches against Pembroke College, Cambridge, and the Open University. They then won their first quarterfinal with a very impressive 315 points, the highest score in the competition so far. Leaving only 55 on the scoreboard for Trinity College, Cambridge. Let’s meet them again. Hello, I’m Harry Gillow. I’m from Stone in Staffordshire and I am studying classics. Hi, I’m Chris Savory from Burgess Hill in West Sussex. – I’m reading chemistry.
– And this is their captain. Hello, my name is Hugh Binnie. I come from Cheltenham in Gloucestershire and I’m reading chemistry. Hello, I’m Cameron J Quinn, originally from Los Angeles, California, and I read philosophy and French. APPLAUSE OK, you all know the rules so fingers on the buzzers. Here’s your first starter for ten. Examples including Bill Clinton on Kelly Clarkson and Benedict Cumberbatch on the rock band U2, what neologism… BUZZER Photo bomb. Correct. APPLAUSE Right, Magdalen, this first set of bonuses is on the City of London. Firstly, for five points, in which building on Ludgate Hill would one find the Latin inscription, “Si monumentum requiris, circumspice”? I need the building and the person to whom it refers. THEY WHISPER I don’t know. I don’t know. Don’t know who that would be. Or what. – Not going to be Nelson’s Column, is it?
– Nelson’s Column. Nelson’s Column to Nelson. No, it’s St Paul’s Cathedral and it’s Sir Christopher Wren. Designed by Christopher Wren, a fluted Doric column close to London Bridge commemorates what event? 202 feet in height, it has a viewing gallery open to the public. THEY CONFER We need an event. – Battle of Trafalgar.
– That’s Nelson’s Column. – Wren?
– Yeah. – Great Fire of London?
– Yeah, Great Fire of London. Great Fire of London. Correct. And finally, for five points, the monument to which poet was one of the few in St Paul’s Cathedral to survive the Great Fire of London? He was appointed Dean of St Paul’s in 1621. THEY CONFER Donne. It was John Donne. Yes. 10 points for this, passing the cities of Dortmund and Essen and meeting the Rhine at Duesberg, which river has a name that has become synonymous with the industrial heartland of western Germany? BUZZER Ruhr. The Ruhr is correct, yes. APPLAUSE These bonuses are on French overseas departments. Two overseas French departement lie in the Caribbean, which one is an island group lying between Montserrat and Dominica? THEY CONFER Guadeloupe. Correct. Which overseas departement served as a French penal colony from the 1850s to the 1950s and included the notorious Devil’s Island? French Guyana. Correct. There are two overseas departements in the Indian Ocean, Mayotte and which other island lying between Madagascar and Mauritius? – Reunion.
– Correct. 10 points for this. A eukaryotic organism incapable of carrying out photosynthesis whose cell walls contain chitin and which absorbs organic… BUZZER – Fungus.
– Correct. APPLAUSE Right, these bonuses are on a mineral group, Magdalen. Augite, jadeite, and spodumene belong to which group of rock-forming silicate minerals? Its name comes from the Greek words for fire and stranger. THEY CONFER Pyroxene, maybe. – Pyroxenes.
– Maybe. Pyroxenes. Yes, or pyroxenes. Yes. The sub-division of pyroxenes include a group containing pigeonite and orthopyroxene, these are composed of iron, silica, a small amount of calcium and which other metallic element? THEY CONFER Aluminium. No, it’s magnesium. Spodumene is an important ore of which alkali metal, the lightest of the solid elements with atomic number 3? – Lithium.
– Lithium. Correct. 10 points for this. A country to the north-west of Nicaragua, the western portion of the island of Hispaniola and a landlocked republic that borders… BUZZER Dominica. No, I’m afraid you lose five points. And a landlocked republic that borders Austria to the east are the only sovereign states whose single-word English names begin with what letter of the alphabet? BELL RINGS B. No, it’s H. Honduras and Haiti and Hungary. So 10 points for this starter question. The Columbus laboratory, the Cupola isolation module, the docking compartment DC-1, the mini research module Poisk, meaning search, and the US… BELL RINGS International Space Station. Correct. APPLAUSE Right, these bonuses, Gonville & Caius, are on world champions. Firstly for five points, an abrasive personality, plagued by mental health issues in later life, Wilhelm Steinitz is generally regarded as the first person to achieve the status of world champion in what activity from 1886 to 1894? – Chess maybe.
– Chess. Chess. Chess is correct. Which German mathematician succeeded Steinitz as world champion in 1894 and went on to hold the title for a record period of almost 27 years? THEY CONFER Try Mobius? Mobius. No, it’s Lasker. And finally, for a possible five, noted for introducing a variety of chess with two new pieces, a chancellor and an archbishop, which Cuban player defeated Lasker in the world championship match of 1921? Cuban name? THEY CONFER Marques. No, it was Jose Capablanca. Right, first picture round now. For your picture starter you’ll see a logo of an international cultural organisation based in Paris. 10 points if you can name it. BUZZER La Francophonie. Correct. APPLAUSE Magdalen, your bonuses are three more logos of international organisations that use French as an official working language. Five points for each you can name. Firstly… THEY CONFER International Court of Justice. No. We’ll see the whole thing there. It’s Interpol, of course. Secondly… THEY CONFER The IMF. No, we’ll see the whole thing. It’s the OECD. There you are. And finally, the name by which this organisation has been known since 2002. THEY CONFER Is it African Union or African Congress? – You think African Union?
– Yeah. Because it used to be Union of African States. Maybe… The African Union. It is the African Union. APPLAUSE Right, 10 points for this starter question. Analysing decision-making and cognitive biases in 99 short chapters, which Swiss founder of the intellectual community ZURICH.MINDS wrote the 2013 bestseller The Art Of Thinking Clearly – Better Thinking, Better Decisions? BELL RINGS Daniel Kahneman. No, anyone like to buzz from Magdalen? It’s Rolf Dobelli. 10 points for this, the wives of which royal figure included Constance, the daughter of the King of Castile, and also Katherine Swynford? The third surviving son of Edward III and Philippa of Hainault, he was the father of Henry IV. BELL RINGS John of Gaunt. Yes! APPLAUSE Right, your bonuses are on names or terms that begin with three consecutive letters of the alphabet, for example, Tuvalu. In each case, give the term from the explanation. Firstly, a three-word German term denoting a literary genre of the later 18th century. It is typified by some of the early works of Goethe and Schiller. – Sturm.
– Sturm und Drang. Correct. Secondly, an alternative spelling for the westernmost region of Saudi Arabia. It includes the cities of Jeddah, Mecca and Medina. Any ideas? – I-J-K…
– J-I-K. M-O-N. Mon…rovia. Don’t know. No. Hijaz. And finally, associated with events in the history of Bohemia, the act of throwing a person out of the window. – Defenestration.
– Yeah, defenestration. Correct. 10 points for this, the old town of Ostuni and the Castel Del Monte, built by the Emperor Frederick II, are among noted sites in which Italian region? Bordering the Adriatic and Ionian seas, its provinces include… BUZZER Um… No, if you buzz, you must answer, I’m sorry. And I’m going to have to fine you 5 points too. Its provinces include Bari, Brindisi and Taranto. BELL RINGS Puglia. Puglia is correct. Yes. APPLAUSE Right, Caius, your bonuses are on linear algebra. In each case, I want the total number of solutions, should they exist, of the given system of equations. Firstly, X + Y=0 and X + Y=1. THEY CONFER What do you think, Jez? – You think zero solutions?
– Yeah. Are you happy with that? We’ll go no solutions. – Zero solutions.
– Zero solutions is correct. X – Y=0 and 2x – 2y=0. That’s just infinite. – Infinite solutions.
– Infinitely many is correct, yes. And finally, X + Y=0 and X – Y=0. THEY CONFER Nominate Loveday. – One.
– One is correct, yes. APPLAUSE Right, 10 points for this. In materials science, what term denotes the extremely high ductility shown by certain metals such as zinc-aluminium alloys when deformed at low strain rates at moderately high temperatures? BELL RINGS Malleable. No, anyone like to buzz from Magdalen? BUZZER Hyperductility. No, it’s superplasticity. 10 points for this. What name links two major battles in the former East Prussia? The first in 1410 saw Polish, Russian and Lithuanian forces… BELL RINGS The Masurian Lakes? No, I’m afraid you lose five points. Polish, Russian and Lithuanian forces defeat the Teutonic Knights while the second, a German victory, is a central event in Solzhenitsyn’s August 1914. BUZZER October. No, it’s Tannenberg. 10 points for this. What single word links a textile pattern designed by William Morris depicting birds and fruit… BUZZER Strawberry. Strawberry is right. Yes. APPLAUSE Right, your bonuses are on species that are on the Zoological Society of London’s list of the world’s 100 most endangered species. Firstly for five points, all found on the Society’s list of endangered species, Bulmer’s fruit, Seychelles sheath-tailed and Cuban greater funnel-eared are species of which mammal? – Bat.
– Bat, yeah.
– Bat. Correct. Also on the list, ploughshare and geometric are endangered species of which reptile of the testudine family? THEY CONFER Tortoise. Correct. Hula-painted, La Hotte glanded and Table Mountain ghost are critically endangered species of which amphibian? THEY CONFER Newt. No, they’re frogs. Right, we’re going to take a music round. For your music starter, you’ll hear a piece of classical music. 10 points if you can name the composer. CLASSICAL MUSIC PLAYS BELL RINGS Mendelssohn. It is Mendelssohn. His Italian Symphony. APPLAUSE That was commissioned by the Royal Philharmonic Society or Philharmonic Society, as it plainly was then. Your music bonuses are three more classical pieces commissioned by that society. In each case, simply identify the composer. Firstly, for five, this French composer. CLASSICAL MUSIC PLAYS – Saint-Saens.
– It is, yes. It’s perhaps his most famous piece. Secondly, this English composer. CLASSICAL MUSIC PLAYS THEY CONFER Delius. No, that’s Arthur Sullivan’s overture to Marmion. And finally, this Czech composer. CLASSICAL MUSIC PLAYS THEY CONFER – What do you think?
– I don’t know. Let’s go Dvorak. It is Dvorak. Part of his 7th Symphony. Right, 10 points for this. The thinnest material known to humanity, which two-dimensional material… BUZZER Graphene. Graphene is correct. Yes. APPLAUSE Your bonuses are on travel writing in the 18th century, Magdalen. A Tour Through The Whole Island Of Great Britain, first published in the 1720s, is a three-volume series of travel writing by which London-born author? THEY CONFER – 1720s.
– Johnson. Johnson. No, it was Daniel Defoe. Secondly, unfinished at the time of his death in 1768, A Sentimental Journey Through France And Italy is a novel by which writer who based it on his own European travels? THEY CONFER – Could be Sterne maybe?
– Sterne? Sterne. Correct. Who wrote The Journal Of A Tour To The Hebrides based on a journey that he had undertaken with another writer in 1773? Johnson definitely wrote that. – Johnson.
– No, it was Boswell. He was with Johnson. Right, 10 points for this. Listen carefully, answer as soon as your name is called. What is the sum of the numbers used to denote the French polities that began in 1852 and 1958? BELL RINGS Seven. Correct. APPLAUSE The second Empire and the fifth Republic. So, a set of bonuses on former government posts for you, Gonville & Caius. John Profumo served as Secretary of State for War under which Prime Minister? The post was abolished the year after the scandal that forced Profumo’s resignation. – Macmillan, isn’t it?
– Yeah. – Macmillan.
– Correct. Lord Longford was the penultimate holder of the office of Secretary of State for the Colonies. Who was Prime Minister at the time of its abolition? Foreign & Commonwealth is about 1960, it becomes… – Wilson?
– We can try Wilson. Yeah. Wilson. Harold Wilson’s right. Viscount French of Ypres was the last but one Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Who was Prime Minister during his tenure of office? THEY CONFER Lloyd George. David Lloyd George. Correct. 10 points for this. “An answer is invariably the parent of a great family of new questions.” Which US Nobel laureate wrote those words in the 1951 non-fiction work The Log From The Sea Of Cortez? BELL RINGS William Faulkner. No, anyone like to buzz from Magdalen? BUZZER Hemingway. No, it was John Steinbeck. 10 points for this. Coined by the Japanese roboticist Masahiro Mori in 1970… BUZZER Uncanny valley. Correct. APPLAUSE It’s when a robot becomes so humanlike that it bothers you. Right, these are bonuses on computer technology. In each case, give me the words for which the following acronyms stand. BASIC, a general high-level programming language. THEY CONFER No, we don’t know that. It’s Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. Secondly, FAT, a method of keeping track of the contents of a hard drive. THEY CONFER File Automated Transfer. No, it’s File Allocation Table. And finally, EPROM, a type of memory chip that retains its data after power is switched off. THEY CONFER We don’t know. It’s Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. 10 points for this. Answer as soon as your name is called. Role two fair, six-sided dice, what is the probability that the score will be 10 or higher? BUZZER One in six. Correct. APPLAUSE Right, these bonuses are on kings of France, Magdalen College. Louis V or Louis The Sluggard, who died in the year 987, was the last French king of which royal house or dynasty? THEY CONFER Carolingian. Correct. Louis XI and Charles VIII were the last two French kings of which royal house? The wife of Henry V of England was also a member. THEY CONFER The Capetians. No, it’s Valois. And finally, King of France from 1830 to 1848, Louis Philippe was a member of which cadet branch of the house of Bourbon? THEY CONFER – I don’t know.
– No. We don’t know. Orleans. 10 points for this. The Empire Salesman was a nickname given to which royal figure on account of the journeys he undertook when Prince of Wales? His last official post was as Governor of the Bahamas. BELL RINGS The Duke of Windsor. Correct. Edward VIII, yes. APPLAUSE So you get a set of bonuses, this time on the number 11, Gonville & Caius. Who was the 11th US president following Martin Van Buren, William Henry Harrison and John Tyler? – Polk.
– Polk. Polk. Correct. Who was the 11th winner of the Nobel Prize for chemistry following Ernest Rutherford, Wilhelm Ostwald and Otto Wallach? THEY CONFER – Curie.
– Yeah, Curie. Curie. Which one? – Marie.
– Very good. What was the 11th country to host the FIFA World Cup following England, Mexico and the Federal Republic of Germany? – That’s Argentina.
– Yeah. Argentina. Correct. We’re going to take a second picture round. For your picture starter, you will see a portrait of a major religious figure of the 16th century. 10 points if you can name him, please. BELL RINGS Martin Luther. Anyone like to buzz from Magdalen? BUZZER Calvin. It is John Calvin. Yes. APPLAUSE The Protestant reformer. Your bonuses are three more influential figures of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation. Five points for each you can name. Firstly… THEY CONFER – Sorry?
– Think it’s Francis Xavier. Francis Xavier. No, it’s St Ignatius Loyola. Founder of the Jesuits. Secondly… THEY CONFER Luther. No, that is Ulrich Zwingli, and finally… THEY CONFER Knox. It is John Knox, the father of Scottish Presbyterianism. Right, another starter question. What five-letter surname links the authors of The Day Of The Scorpion, The Voyage Of The Discovery and The Heart Of Midlothian? BELL RINGS Scott. Correct. APPLAUSE These bonuses are on nuclear energy. Get them all, you’ll take the lead. What term is used to describe the type of nuclear reactor that produces more fissile material than it consumes? THEY CONFER – Yeah.
– Try that.
– Wasteful. No, it’s a fast-breeder reactor. Secondly, atomic number 11, which light metal can be used as a coolant in fast breeder reactors? Its advantages include the fact that it does not act as a neutron moderator. – Sodium.
– Sodium. Correct. What allotropic form of carbon is used as a neutron moderator in reactors such as the UK’s AGR designs? THEY CONFER – Diamond?
– Yeah, try that. Diamond. It’s graphite. Right, 10 points for this. Occurring notably in St John’s Gospel, which Greek word is an appellation of the Holy Spirit, various… BELL RINGS Paraclete. Correct. APPLAUSE Right, your bonuses are on people born in Catalonia. Born in 1852, which architect’s works include the Casa Mila and the Park Guell, both in Barcelona? – Gaudi.
– Correct. Born in 1908, which novelist is best-known for a stream-of-consciousness work that has appeared in translation as The Time Of The Doves and In Diamond Square? – Any ideas?
– No. Don’t know. Are we just going to pass? Garcia Lorca? Federico Garcia Lorca. No, it’s Merce Rodoreda. And finally, which cellist and conductor is noted for his recordings of the Bach Cello Suites? He died in exile in 1973. – It’s Pablo Casals, right?
– Yeah. – Pablo Casals.
– Correct. 10 points for this. In arthropods, what name is given to the external openings of the trachea found alongside… BELL RINGS Spiracles. Correct. APPLAUSE These bonuses are on cities in the Bible, Gonville & Caius. Flourishing from the second millennium BC and an important city in both the Old and the New Testament, which Phoenician port is often associated with Tyre 40km to the south? – Sidon.
– Sidon? Sidon. Correct. What is the first city to be mentioned in the Bible? According to Genesis, it was built by Cain to the east of Eden in the land of Nod and was named after his son. – Any ideas?
– I don’t know. City of…Babel? Babel? Try that, yeah. Babel. No, it’s Enoch. Who is said to have founded many cities including Babylon and Nineveh and is described in Genesis as a mighty hunter before the Lord? – Nimrod.
– Nimrod. Nimrod. Nimrod is correct. There are about two and a half minutes to go. And 10 points for this starter. Corgi, cromlech and flannel are among English words that derive ultimately from which language? BELL RINGS Welsh. Welsh is correct. Yes. APPLAUSE Gonville & Caius, these bonuses are on words sometimes pronounced as homophones. It each case, identify the word from the definitions. Firstly, to walk or strut in an ostentatious manner and a small sealed bag-like container. – Stride. Stride. Small sealed bag-like…?
– Saunter? No. Small sealed bag. – Sashay. Sachet!
– Sashay? Sashay, so they’re both sachet/sashay. – Sashay/sachet.
– Correct. Secondly, an African dish made of granulated durum wheat and a marsupial native to New Guinea. Durum wheat is couscous. – Do we just try couscous?
– Yeah, go for it. Couscous/cuscus. Couscous/cuscus is correct. And finally, a high point or summit, to glance or look furtively and anger or resentment resulting from a slight or injury. – Peak/peek/pique, surely.
– Yeah. Peak/peek/pique. Peak/peek/pique is correct. 10 points for this. Garstang Blue, Blacksticks Blue and Dorset Blue Vinney are among varieties of which food? BUZZER Cheese. Cheese is correct. Yes. APPLAUSE Bonuses on currencies for you, Magdalen. The cordoba is the currency of which Central American country? Any ideas? Nicaragua. Correct. What is the monetary unit of Armenia? It shares its name with an imperial unit equal to 1/16 of an ounce avoirdupois. THEY CONFER – Grain?
– Yeah. Grain. No, it’s dram. Eight countries have currencies called the peso, seven are in the Americas. Which one is not? THEY CONFER We don’t know. It’s the Philippines. 10 points for this. “Wherever law ends, tyranny begins.” These words begin the proposition by which English philosopher in the 16… BUZZER – Hobbes.
– No, I’m afraid you lose five points. ..in the 1689 work Two Treatises of Government? BELL RINGS Locke. John Locke is correct. These bonuses are on world rulers, Gonville & Caius. I’ll read a list of rulers who were on the throne or in power during the first year of the century of the Common Era. In each case, I simply want the century. First, Tiridates III of Armenia… GONG And that’s the gong. Magdalen College, Oxford, have 155. Gonville & Caius College, Cambridge, have 215. APPLAUSE Well, I think you were pretty unlucky to get a run of questions that you had a bit of misfortune on towards the end because you led for much of the match, Magdalen. You’ll have to come back and win again next time to go through to the semifinals but thank you for being with us. Gonville & Caius, you were a terribly long time getting started but you were great once you got going. Congratulations to you. You go through to the semifinals. We shall look forward to seeing you there. And I hope you can join us next time for another quarterfinal match but until then, it’s goodbye from Magdalen College, Oxford. ALL: Goodbye. It’s goodbye from Gonville & Caius College, Cambridge. – ALL: Goodbye.
– And it’s goodbye from me, goodbye. APPLAUSE