University Challenge S44E27 Durham vs Gonville and Caius, Cambridge
APPLAUSE University Challenge. Asking the questions, Jeremy Paxman. Hello. The University of Liverpool and St Peter’s College, Oxford have already earned the first of the two quarterfinal victories our stringent rules demand if they are to progress further in this contest. Tonight, two more teams have a chance to do the same. Durham University scored an extremely comfortable win in Round One, with 250 points against the dismal 35 from Brasenose College, Oxford, who, in future, must try harder. They had tougher opposition in Round Two, but they still came away with 210 points to the University of York’s 160, giving them an accumulated score of 460. Let’s meet the Durham team again. Hello, I’m Daniel Morgan-Thomas, I’m from East London and I’m studying history and classics. Hi, I’m Freddie Lloyd, I’m from Penshurt in Kent and I’m studying philosophy. And this is their captain. Hi, I’m Fred Harvey, I’m from Bridlington in East Yorkshire and I’m studying physics. Hello, I’m Nikul Boyd-Shah, I’m from Bournemouth in Dorset and I’m studying law. APPLAUSE The team from Gonville & Caius College, Cambridge had the highest score in Round One – with 305 points against the 105 of St Anne’s College, Oxford. They too had a much closer match in Round Two, but managed to beat the University of Manchester by 200 points to 135, nonetheless. Their accumulated score, therefore, is 505. Let’s meet the Caius team again. Hi, I’m Ted Loveday, I’m from Hammersmith in London and I’m studying law. Hello, I’m Michael Taylor from Ballymena in Northern Island and I’m studying for a PhD in history. And here’s their captain. Hi, I’m Anthony Martinelli, I’m from Hertfordshire and I’m studying medicine. Hi, I’m Jeremy Warner, I’m from Southampton and I’m reading natural sciences. APPLAUSE Right, let’s not waste any time reciting the rules, just fingers on buzzers. Let’s get on with it. Your first starter for ten. Born 1790, which German mathematician and astronomer first described a class of extraordinary polyhedrals that have zero volume and violate Euler’s Polyhedral Formula? His name is more commonly associated with a one-sided band or strip. BUZZER Mobius. Correct. APPLAUSE The first set of bonuses, Durham, are on Vikings. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry for the year 793 details the harrowing inroads of the first significant Viking raid of the 8th century on which island off the Northumberland coast? Lindisfarne. Correct. In the early 10th century, the Viking leader, Rollo, agreed to become the vassal of the French King Charles the Simple, who gave him the land which became which duchy? THEY WHISPER Normandy? Correct. Wooded land in North America was visited in around the year 1000 by the explorer Leif Erikson, who gave it what seven-letter name? THEY WHISPER – Iceland?
– Possibly? No, that’s not in North America, is it? I know it’s not, but, you know, there’s ice there. Iceland? No, it’s Vinland. Ten points for this. Mozart’s Concerto K.191 in B Flat Major is one of the most frequently performed works in the repertoire of which woodwind instrument? BUZZER Clarinet? No, you lose five points. In Prokofiev’s Peter and the Wolf it’s used to represent the grandfather. BUZZER Bassoon? Correct. APPLAUSE Now, Caius, these bonuses are on modularity. The modulus measuring the stiffness of an elastic material, defined as the quotient of longitudinal stress over strain, is named after which English polymath? – Young.
– Young. Correct. Using modular arithmetic, give an example of a square root of two modulo seven. THEY WHISPER Speak up. – Three.
– Three? Three. Correct. In proving a partial case of the Taniyama-Shimura Conjecture – that every rational elliptic curve is modular – Andrew Wiles established which conjectural mathematical result? THEY WHISPER Fermat’s Last Theorem. Correct. Ten points for this. What two-word common name is given to insects of the family Phasmatodea characterised by an elongated body shape and an ability to camouflage themselves on plants? BUZZER Stick insect? Correct. APPLAUSE These bonuses, Caius, are on single words with two contradictory meanings, sometimes known as contronyms or Janus words. Firstly, from the Greek word for the womb, what word can mean both frightened and out of control and wildly funny? It’s hysterical. Hysterical. Correct. Originating from two different Old English words, what six-letter word can mean both to part or divide by a cutting blow and to adhere or cling to? THEY WHISPER Cleave? Correct. From the Greek meaning “a speech in defence”, what word can mean both an expression of regret for an offence or failure and a justification, often of a faith? – Apology.
– Yeah. Apology. Correct. APPLAUSE Ten points for this. Originally specialising in 19th century French socialism, which London-born historian published his magnum opus post-war… BUZZER Tony Judt? Correct. APPLAUSE Right, a set of bonuses on Virgil’s Aeneid. Firstly for five. After the Greeks depart from Troy in Book II of the Aeneid, which Greek warrior claims to have deserted and persuades the Trojans to take the wooden horse into the city? THEY WHISPER – Agamemnon?
– That’s wrong. But…OK. Agamemnon? No, it’s Sinon. Which Trojan priest warns against this action with the words “I fear the Greeks, even when bearing gifts”? He and his sons are killed by sea serpents and the Trojans draw the horse into the city. Priam is the king. He’s the only one I can think of. He isn’t killed by a sea serpent, though, is he? – No.
– So who warns against it? THEY WHISPER Shall we go for Priam? Priam? No, it’s Laocoon. And finally, during the sack of Troy, which dead Trojan hero appears to Aeneas in a dream and urges him to flee the doomed city? THEY WHISPER Hector? Correct. Ten points for this. “Whom the Gods love dies young” is an aphorism attributed to which ancient Athenian comic dramatist of whose extant works the play Dyskolos is the most substantially complete? BUZZER Is it Menander? It is, yes. APPLAUSE You get three bonuses on whales – the marine mammal, that is. Firstly, eaten in polar regions, Muktuk is a dish that consists largely of which fatty substance? It acts as an insulating layer in whales and other marine mammals. Are we happy with blubber? Blubber. Correct. Found in the head of certain whales species and formerly used in candle manufacture, which white, fatty substance is so-named because it was, at one time, thought to play a role in the reproductive process? – Sperm?
– Yeah. Sperm. Eh, no. That does play a role in the reproductive process. LAUGHTER No, it’s spermaceti. And finally, which dark, odorous, waxy substance is found in the intestines of sperm whales and has historically been used in the manufacture of perfume? Ambergris? – Yeah?
– I think it’s ambergris. Nominate Loveday. Ambergris. Correct. Right, we’ve going to take a the picture round now. For your picture starter you’ll see a map of some of the UK’s parliamentary constituencies with one of them highlighted. Ten points if you can name it. BUZZER West Belfast? Correct. APPLAUSE For your bonuses, three constituencies that in the 2010 General Election returned MPs with large majorities – this time all in the diversely partisan county of Yorkshire. In each case, I want the constituency and the MP who held it. Firstly for five, with a majority of over 23,000 votes. THEY WHISPER It’s in North Yorkshire. The MP for North Yorkshire? Erm… John Prescott? – No, Prescott is Hull.
– OK. Also, he’s in the Lords now. Erm, can anyone think of any obviously… – No.
– It’s all going to be Tory, isn’t it? So shall we go Theresa May or something? North Yorkshire, Theresa May? It is Richmond in North Yorkshire and William Hague – so I’m afraid you don’t get that. Secondly, with a majority of just under 11,000 votes. THEY WHISPER – Darlington?
– No, I think Darlington is further north. Do we know? Pass. That’s Doncaster North, Ed Miliband’s seat. And finally, with a majority of just over 15,000 votes. – Could this be Sheffield Hallam, maybe?
– And Nick Clegg? Sheffield Hallam and Clegg? Nick Clegg and Sheffield Hallam is correct, yes. Right, ten points for this. Named after the town in Surrey that was the birthplace of the 14th century logician and Franciscan friar to whom it is attributed, what principle states that… BUZZER Occam’s Razor. Correct. APPLAUSE We don’t multiply things unnecessarily, so you get a set of bonuses this time, Gonville & Caius, on countries. In each case, the name of a country can be formed by changing one letter in each of the two words you will hear defined. For instance, if the words defined were “iron” and “bran”, the answer would be Iran. OK? Firstly, the first name of the fictional Lord Glenvarloch in the title of an 1822 novel by Sir Walter Scott and a large feline native to Asia. A large feline from Asia could be tiger? – Niger?
– Niger. Niger? Correct. Secondly, a tall single-headed African drum associated with the Cuban rumba and an implement consisting of two arms connected by a hinge, pivot, or spring? – Lever.
– Lever. Erm… What was the first one? The first one is an instrument like a big drum. Something ending in -ver? Any countries ending in -ver that we can think of? Bongo. Liberia. LAUGHTER I’d be very interested to know how you got that. It’s utterly wrong. No, it’s Tonga from “conga” and “tongs”. And finally, the name of the Spanish city where the Alhambra is situated and a small explosive shell thrown by hand. – Grenade.
– Grenada. Grenada. Correct. Ten points for this. Give your answers as soon as your name is called. What are the only complex numbers whose square equals half their cube? BUZZER Negative numbers. Imaginary negative numbers less than 1? Nope. Anyone like to buzz from Durham? BUZZER 2 and 2i? No, it’s 0 and 2. Ten points for this. The creators of the operas L’Orfeo and Otello and the authors of the novels Love On The Dole and The Quiet American all have surnames that, in part… BUZZER Green. Correct. APPLAUSE Right, these bonuses, Gonville & Caius, are on dreams in Shakespeare. In each case, give the play in which the following words appear. Firstly, “There is some ill a-brewing towards my rest, “for I did dream of moneybags tonight.” THEY WHISPER Oh, yeah, maybe. That’s a good idea. Shall we try Merchant Of Venice? Merchant Of Venice? Correct. Secondly, “I’ve had a most rare vision. “I have had a dream past the wit of man to say what dream it was.” A Midsummer Night’s Dream? No, I think it might be Hamlet. The last one could be Queen Mab, though. Hamlet might be… Go for Hamlet. Hamlet? No, it’s Bottom in A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Finally, “Sometime she driveth o’er a soldier’s neck, “and then dreams he of cutting foreign throats, “of breaches, ambuscadoes, Spanish blades, “of healths five fathom deep.” Romeo and Juliet. Romeo and Juliet. Indeed, yes, it’s the Queen Mab speech. Right, we are going to take a music round now. For your music starter you will hear a piece of classical music. Ten points if you can name the French composer. CLASSICAL MUSIC PLAYS BUZZER Charpentier? It is Charpentier, yes. APPLAUSE That was the prelude to his Te Deum, taking its name from the first lines of the Latin hymn Te Deum laudamus, or To Thee, O Lord, We Give Praise. For your bonuses, three more pieces of classical music known by the name Te Deum. Five points for each composer you can name. Firstly, this Czech composer. CLASSICAL MUSIC PLAYS It is one of three. THEY WHISPER Smetana? No, it’s Dvorak. Secondly, this English composer. CHORAL MUSIC PLAYS THEY WHISPER It sounds a bit more… We’ll try Purcell. It is Purcell, yes. Finally, this Austrian composer. CLASSICAL MUSIC PLAYS THEY WHISPER Yeah, we’ll try Mozart. It’s Haydn. Ten points for this. A test devised in 2011 to measure whether a computer-created synthesized voice can time and deliver a joke well enough to make people laugh is named after which US film critic, often partnered with… BUZZER Roger Ebert. Correct. APPLAUSE These bonuses are on astronomy, Gonville & Caius. What body in the solar system has a diameter almost exactly 400 times that of Earth’s moon? 200 times Earth-ish, isn’t it? So maybe Jupiter? THEY WHISPER Diameter. Could be the sun? No, the sun is way, way bigger. Shall we try Jupiter? Have you guys got any ideas? – Not really.
– Happy with Jupiter. Jupiter? No, it’s the sun. By coincidence, the sun’s mean distance from Earth is also around 400 times that of the moon from Earth. This allows what rare, specific astronomical phenomenon to occur? THEY WHISPER I thought it was some sort of eclipse, maybe? Total eclipse of the sun? – What do you think?
– Could be. Shall we try…lunar eclipse? No, it’s a total eclipse of the sun. And finally, what seven-letter term describes the event when a planet, rather than the moon, passes in front of the sun from our viewpoint? Transit. Correct. Ten points for this. Which novel of 1935 has as its closing line “So we beat on”? BUZZER The Great Gatsby. Well done. You get the bonuses this time on comic operas. Which English composer wrote the opera The Perfect Fool? First performed in 1923, it parodies the conventions of 19th-century opera and begins, unusually, with a 12-minute ballet. Vaughan Williams? We can try Vaughan Williams, yeah. Vaughan Williams? No, it’s Holst. Born in Dublin in 1751, which dramatist wrote the libretto for the opera The Duenna, which in turn formed the basis of Prokofiev’s opera Betrothal In A Monastery? 1751… No, I know the answer. Sheridan. Sheridan? It was, yes. Sung by Nemorino, the popular tenor aria Una furtiva lagrima features in which comic opera by Donizetti? Don Pasquale? Yeah, we’ll try that. Don Pasquale? No, it is The Elixir of Love. Ten points for this. After the story that he ordered sham villages to be built for Catherine the Great’s tour of… BUZZER Potemkin? Potemkin is correct, yes. APPLAUSE You get a set of bonuses, Gonville & Caius, on Mexico. Villahermosa is the capital of which state in south-east Mexico? It shares its name with a sauce made from a species of capsicum and manufactured in Louisiana. Happy with Tabasco? Tabasco. Correct. Which state to the east of Tabasco shares its name with both its capital city and the body of water that forms part of the Gulf of Mexico? Guadalajara? – Yeah, yeah, could well be.
– I don’t know. Guadalajara? No, it’s Campeche. And finally, which Mexican state forms the northern part of the peninsula of the same name that it shares with Campeche and Quintana Roo? – Yucatan.
– Yucatan. Yucatan? Yucatan is right. Ten points for this. Adopting a plan in which many streets were widened to improve traffic circulation, Baron Georges Haussmann was, during the 1860s… BUZZER Paris? Correct. APPLAUSE Right, you are back in the game. These bonuses are on aerodynamics, Durham. In aerodynamics, what name is given to the angle between the chord of an aircraft’s wing and the velocity vector of the aircraft? Is it something like lift? It probably isn’t. – I don’t know much about…
– Go for it. Lift? No, it is the angle of attack, or angle of incidence. Secondly, if the angle of attack of a wing is increased to such an extent that the amount of lift generated by the wing decreases, what state is the aircraft said to be in? – Terminal velocity?
– Steady? Terminal velocity means falling. Steady? Gliding, or something? Steady? Stick with steady? Steady? No, it’s a stall. Reminders not to go flying with you. The stall speed of an aircraft can be lowered by extending flaps from the trailing edge of the wing or by extending what device forwards from the leading edge of the wing? It’s not… That sounds good. – What did you say?
– Aileron. Aileron? No, they’re slats. Right, we’re going to take a second picture round. For your picture starter you are going to see an engraving of a scientific discovery. For ten points, I want you to identify the scientist shown at work. BUZZER Newton? It is Sir Isaac Newton. Do you know what he is doing? He’s putting light through a prism to refract it. So easy when you know, isn’t it? Well done, you’re quite right, yes. Your picture bonus is three more illustrations of significant scientific experiments. In each case, I want you to identify the scientist from their experiment. Firstly, for five, this French scientist. THEY WHISPER He’s heating up… – Lavoisier?
– If there is heating, it could be Lavoisier. Could be Lavoisier, yeah. Lavoisier? It is, yes. Secondly, this Italian scientist. Is it Galvani? Yeah, yeah, yeah. The frog? Galvani? It is Galvani, yes. Giving a frog a bad time. And finally, this Italian scientist? – It’s Volta.
– Yeah. Volta. Volta is right, yes. Well done. Ten points for this. In his 1968 book, The Naked Civil Servant, Quentin Crisp… BUZZER Sorry. Sorry, I’m going to fine you five points. ..Quentin Crisp describes which literary genre as “an obituary in serial form, with the last instalment missing”? BUZZER Autobiography. Correct. You get a set of bonuses, Durham, on US presidential campaign slogans. Firstly, identified by Time Magazine as one of the ten most effective slogans in US political campaigns, what three words were used by Dwight D Eisenhower’s campaign in 1952? I like Ike. Or We like Ike? I thought it was “I”. I like Ike? I like Ike is right. Early in the 20th century, who won a presidential race with the slogan “A chicken in every pot and a car in every garage”? LAUGHTER THEY WHISPER – Hoover?
– It sounds about right, yeah. Hoover? It was Herbert Hoover in 1928. And finally, in 2008, Barack Obama campaigned under the slogan “Change we can believe in”. What was his one-word slogan four years later? Forward, I think. Hmm, that sounds good. Forward? It was “Forward”, yes. Ten points for this. APPLAUSE Under which Prime Minister did Hugh Dalton, Stafford Cripps, and Hugh Gaitskell… BUZZER Clement Attlee. Correct. APPLAUSE They were all Chancellors of the Exchequer. Your bonuses now are on biological terms. All three begin with the same Greek prefix. What precise Greek-derived term describes an organism that has four complete sets of chromosomes? THEY WHISPER We need a biologist. Erm… Quad-ra-cite? No, it’s a tetraploid. Secondly, which coenzyme transfers methyl, formyl and methylene groups? THEY WHISPER Tetrazine? No, it is tetrahydrofolic acid, or folate. And finally, derived from Streptomyces species, which antibiotic inhibits amino acid complexes binding to ribosomal sub-units? Isn’t there one called Tetramycin, or something like that? THEY WHISPER Tetramycin? No, it’s Tetracycline. There are about four and a quarter minutes to go. 10 points for this. In human biology, what two-word Latin term denotes the mass of yellow tissue remaining after ovulation, when a mature… BUZZER Corpus luteum. Correct. APPLAUSE Your bonuses this time are on English kings. In each case, name the king who acceded to the throne in the given year. Firstly, 1154. THEY WHISPER – Henry II?
– Henry II. Henry II. Correct. Secondly, 1327. THEY WHISPER Edward III? Correct. Finally, 1422. So it was Henry IV. No, it was Henry V. No, no because he’s at Agincourt, so he is 1415. OK, go for it. Henry V. For 1420-something? Yeah, 1422. No, because he fought at Agincourt, Henry V. Oh, sorry. THEY WHISPER FURIOUSLY Can you repeat the year for us? No, come on, you’ve got to get it! – It was 1422.
– 1422. So, Henry V? Henry VI. Henry VI is right! APPLAUSE Right, ten points for this. Give two answers as soon as your name is called. In addition to Castile and Leon, three autonomous regions of Spain border Portugal – name two of them. BUZZER Extremadura and Galicia. Correct. The other is Andalusia. APPLAUSE These bonuses are on geological periods, Gonville & Caius. Which geological period followed the Silurian and is characterised by the evolution of the first amphibians and insects? Is it Ordovician? Is it Ordovician or… – Is it Devonian?
– You think it is Devonian? Devonian. Correct. Which period of the Mesozoic era followed the Jurassic and saw the extinction of the dinosaurs? – Cretaceous.
– Cretaceous. After the Jurassic. Cretaceous. Correct. What is current geological period, which began around two million years ago? Period…erm…is it just Quaternary? Yeah, I think that. Quaternary? Quaternary is correct, yes. APPLAUSE There is only a couple of minutes to go and there are ten points at stake for this. Four letters of the alphabet do not appear in the names of any of the 12 months of the year. Alphabetically speaking, which of these letters is the first? BUZZER H? Nope. BUZZER C? No, it’s K. Q, X and Z are the others. Ten points for this. What word can follow the names Nusselt, Grashof, Weber and Froude to give a dimensionless, physical quantity? BUZZER Space? No. Durham, one of you buzz. BUZZER Time? No, it’s number. Ten points for this. La Grande Illusion and La… BUZZER Renoir. Correct. APPLAUSE These bonuses are on Berlin, Durham. In the opening paragraphs of his account of pre-Nazi Berlin, which author wrote, “I am a camera with its shutter open, “quite passive, recording not thinking”? Christopher Isherwood. Correct. Which author wrote Berlin Game, the first novel in a series of three trilogies about the British spy, Bernard Samson? Patrick Forsyth? Patrick Forsyth? No, it was Len Deighton. In 2002, which historian followed his account of the Battle of Stalingrad with Berlin: The Downfall 1945? Antony Beevor? Antony Beevor. Correct. Ten points for this. Usually considered to be less than 60 beats per minute, what Greek-derived medical term is defined as a slow heart rate? BUZZER Bradycardia. Correct. Here are your bonuses. They’re on a shared letter. What is the letter and number designation of an internal combustion engine with its cylinders arranged in two rows of four at an angle to each other? – V8?
– V8? V8? Correct. V3 is an abbreviation used in English language teaching for what precise form of a verb? THEY WHISPER GONG RESONATES And at the gong… APPLAUSE Durham have 95. Gonville & Caius have 275. The answer, of course, was past participle, the one you were looking for, Gonville & Caius. But many congratulations to you. Durham, bad luck. I’m afraid you’re going to have to do a lot better than that, really. But, Gonville & Caius, 275 is a terrific performance again and, at this stage of the competition, when the questions get harder, it’s particularly impressive. So we shall look forward to seeing you again. And I hope you can join us next time for another quarterfinal match – but, until then, it’s goodbye from Durham University…
– Goodbye. – ..it’s goodbye from Gonville & Caius College, Cambridge…
– Goodbye. ..and it’s goodbye from me. Goodbye.