University Challenge 2018/19 E12. UCL v King’s – London. Jeremy Paxman
Asking the questions, Jeremy Paxman. APPLAUSE Hello. In terms of full-time
student numbers, the University of London is
the largest in the UK. And tonight, its two founding
colleges are fighting it out for a place in the second round. Some rivalry is said to exist
between them, so we could see
a closely-fought contest. The losers could earn the right
to return for the playoffs if their score is high enough. University College London was
established in 1826 by the poet Thomas Campbell and the lawyer
Henry Brougham to open up higher education in England to
students of any race or religion. Both of them were strongly
influenced by the social reformer Jeremy Bentham, who’s often regarded as
the institution’s spiritual father and whose skeletal remains
are housed in its south cloister. Notable alumni include
Mahatma Gandhi, the philosopher John Stuart Mill, the birth control pioneer
Marie Stopes and all of Coldplay. With an average age of 28
and representing around 37,000 students,
let’s meet the UCL team. Hi, my name’s George Mitkov. I’m from Warwickshire and
I’m reading French and German. I’m Sophie Walker,
I’m from Boulder, Colorado, and I’m doing a Master’s
in translation. And this is their captain. Hello, I’m Robert Johnstone from
Worcester Park in Surrey and I’m studying for a Master’s
in medical imaging. Hello, I’m Feiyu Fang, I’m from
Leicester and I’m studying physics. APPLAUSE King’s College London was founded
by a group of politicians and churchmen who wanted a Church of
England alternative to UCL, which was famously labelled “the Godless institution of
Gower Street.” Alumni include the writers Thomas Hardy, Virginia Woolf,
Radclyffe Hall, Susan Hill and Anita Brookner, the philosopher Alain de Botton
and the comedian Rory Bremner. Representing a student population
of around 29,000 and with an average age of 23,
let’s meet the King’s team. Hi, good evening. My name’s Liam Tsang, I’m from
Wanstead in north-east London and I’m studying medicine. Hi, I’m Rhianne Jones, I’m from
Wrexham in north Wales and I’m studying for an MA
in early-modern history. And here’s their captain. Hi, I’m Anthony Chater. I’m from Surrey and I’m studying
for a Master’s in music. Hello, I’m Katie Heath. I’m from Meppershall in Bedfordshire
and I’m studying midwifery. APPLAUSE OK, the rules are unchanging,
so fingers on the buzzers, here’s your first starter for ten. What short word links
a frequently-covered song by Dimitri Tiomkin and Ned Washington, a 1996 non-fiction work
by Jon Krakauer about the US traveller Chris McCandless and a 1991 family biography
by Jung Chang? Wild. Wild is correct. APPLAUSE Your bonuses are on quotations. In each case, give the single word
that completes the following. All three answers rhyme
with one another. Firstly, from a 1928 work by
the British astrophysicist Arthur Eddington, “I shall use
the phrase to express this “one-way property of time,
which has no analogue in space.” Time’s what? Arrow? Arrow, yeah. Arrow. Correct. Secondly, from A Portrait Of
The Artist As A Young Man by James Joyce, “Ireland is
the old sow that eats her” what? I need you to spell the word here. Yarrow? Give it a try. Yarrow. Y-A-R-R… No, it’s farrow, F-A-R-R-O-W. And finally, from Shakespeare’s
Hamlet, “Not a whit. We defy augury. “There’s a special Providence
in the fall of a…” Sparrow. Sparrow. Sparrow is correct, yes. Ten points for this. The origins of which US memorial lie
in a proposal by the state historian Doane Robinson to carve granite
pillars known as The Needles… Mount Rushmore.
Mount Rushmore is correct. APPLAUSE Your bonuses are on performers
named, along with The Who and The Kinks, in the title
of Clinton Heylin’s 2012 work All The Madmen: The Journey
To The Dark Side Of English Rock. Name each person from
the description. First,
a founder member of Pink Floyd, replaced by David Gilmour in 1968. His solo albums include
The Mad Cat Laughs. Oh, my gosh, I have no clue. My fiance’s going to be
shouting at the screen. Do you know any Pink Floyd members?
Roger Waters? No, I have no clue. He was the guy who was on
LSD a lot of the time. LAUGHTER
If you have a name, guess it. Roger Waters. I don’t think so!
No, it’s Syd Barrett. Secondly,
a folk musician who died in 1974. Little known in his lifetime, his albums included
Five Leaves Left and Pink Moon. His sister Gabrielle, a noted actor,
has done much to promote his work. Nick Drake. Correct. A musician born in London in 1947, his song All The Madmen
appears on a 1970 album, and he covered Pink Floyd’s
See Emily Play on a later album. No idea. Not a clue. No idea. Pass. That was David Bowie. Oh! Ten points for this. In evolutionary
biology, what term… Are you all right? Sorry. Ten points for this. In evolutionary biology,
what term describes speciation that occurs when a population
divided by a geographic barrier…? Allopatric. Allopatric speciation is correct,
yes. APPLAUSE Your first bonuses, King’s,
are on philosophers according to the 1907 version of
The Nuttall Encyclopaedia. Name each person from
the description. Firstly, born at Malmesbury,
he wrote a number of works, all more or less leading up to
the doctrine that the absolute sovereign power in all matters of
right and wrong is vested in the state as the achieved fact of the emancipation of the race
from savagery. THEY CONFER Hobbes, I think.
I think it’s Hobbes, yeah. Yeah. Erm, Hobbes. Hobbes is correct. Which German
“by his critical method did for “philosophy what Copernicus
did for astronomy”? He centralised the intelligence
in the reason or soul as the latter did the planetary system in the sun. Kant. Yeah, I think Kant. Kant. Kant is correct. A native of Thrace, he was the oracle of the scholastic
philosophers and theologians in the Middle Ages and is the author
of a great number of writings, which covered a vast field
of speculation. Aristotle? Um… Yeah. Aristotle? Aristotle is correct. Ten points for this. “He was architect general under
four mighty kings, two heroic queens “and that illustrious,
inevitably forgotten Prince Henry.” These words refer to which
architect born in 1573? His notable designs include
the Queen’s House in Greenwich… Inigo Jones. Inigo Jones is correct. APPLAUSE You get three bonuses on
the lanthanide elements, King’s. What is the most abundant of
the lanthanide elements? Named after an astronomical body,
it is the major constituent of mischmetal,
used to make lighter flints. Cerium. What? Cerium. Cerium? Yeah. Cerium. Correct. Permanent magnets, used for example in aircraft and wind turbine
generators as well as in computer hard drives, are often made of an alloy or iron,
boron and which lanthanide element? Its name means new twin. Erm, neodymium. Neodymium? Yeah. Neodymium. Neodymium is correct. And finally, in 1885,
the Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach
discovered neodymium and which other lanthanide?
Its name means green twin. Praseodymium. “Praseodeemium”?
Dymium, yeah, praseodymium. Praseodymium. Correct. Right, we’re going to take
a picture round now. For your picture starter,
you will see a map showing the locations of three major industrial
heritage museums in the UK. All three are themed around
the same specific activity. Ten points if you can tell me
what the industry is. Mining? Specifically? Coal mining. Coal mining is right. APPLAUSE Following on from that map of
coal mining museums, your picture bonuses, three more maps showing industrial
heritage museums in Britain. Give the specific industry or
product that is their theme. Historic county boundaries have
been marked to help you. Firstly, for five,
what product links these museums? So it’s kind of Derbyshire. Mm. So, we’re looking at… ..milling? Tin? No. It’s not tin, it would be cotton,
maybe. Yeah. Cotton? Cotton? Correct. Secondly, this is the location of
the national museum dedicated to what resource? In kind of north Wales. THEY LAUGH Erm, any thoughts? Slate? Slate, that’s a good shout. Slate. Slate is correct. Finally, what general category of
industrial product links these museums? Oh, pottery, I think. Yeah, oh…
Pottery? I think pottery’s around there.
Yeah, go with it. Pottery. Pottery is correct,
or china or ceramics. Right, ten points for this. Of what sport did George Orwell
write “it is not “a 20th century game and nearly all
modern-minded people dislike it. “The Nazis, for instance.” The words appear in an essay about
EW Hornung’s gentleman burglar Raffles. Cricket. Cricket is correct, yes. APPLAUSE Your bonuses are on
British history, UCL. Which conflict saw the passing of
the legal instrument known as the self-denying ordinance, which excluded certain categories of
people from military command? Catholics, maybe. No, conflict. It could be like
a psychological thing, like post-traumatic stress disorder.
We want which conflict. The Boer War. Oh. Sure, yeah.
I don’t know. I guess, I don’t know. Just guess. Boer War?
Yeah, go ahead. Boer War? No, it’s the English Civil War. Secondly, because MPs could resign
their seats but peers could not, members of the House of Lords were
forced to resign their commissions. These included Edward Montagu, the Parliamentary Commander
at the Battle of Edgehill. Which earldom did he hold? Don’t know. Richmond? What was his name? Don’t know.
Edward Montagu. Montagu. Richmond?
I don’t know, just a guess. Richmond. No, it was Manchester. The self-denying ordinance paved
the way for the creation of which military force,
commanded by Sir Thomas Fairfax? Territorial Army?
Yeah, that’s a good guess. The Territorial Army?
No, it’s the New Model Army. Ten points for this. “The communication of the dead
is tongued with fire beyond “the language of the living.” These words are engraved on which
poet’s Westminster Abbey memorial stone, unveiled in 1967,
two years after his death? Siegfried Sassoon? Nope. Anyone like to buzz from UCL? TS Eliot? TS Eliot is correct, yes. APPLAUSE Quotation from the Four Quartets. So, you get a set of bonuses,
UCL, on amino acids. What term denotes the chemical bond
formed by the reaction between adjacent carboxyl and amino groups
with the elimination of water? Peptide, maybe? Is that a bond? I wouldn’t have said
that was a bond. So it’s a peptide, isn’t it?
No, it’s an amino… Is it a covalent bond? Maybe. Covalent bond?
No, it’s a peptide bond. Oh! Secondly, the first reported
large-scale commercial production of an amino acid occurred in 1908, when what flavouring agent was
prepared from seaweed? It is known by the E number 621. Oh, it’s monosodium glutamate. Monosodium glutamate. Correct. With hydrogen as its R group,
what is the simplest amino acid? Alanine, maybe. That’s pretty small, isn’t it? Yeah. Alanine. No, it’s glycine.
Ten points for this. The equation “S=k log W” appears on the gravestone of which
Austrian physicist? Boltzmann.
Boltzmann is correct, yes. APPLAUSE Your bonuses are on sisters
in 20th-century US fiction, King’s London. The musically-gifted Siamese twins
Electra and Iphigenia Binewski are characters in which
cult novel of 1989 by the US author Katherine Dunn? Any idea? No, no… Any… Any ideas? Sorry, we don’t have an answer. It’s Geek Love. Ruthie and Lucille as siblings
raised by a series of relatives, including their unconventional
Aunt Sylvie in the fictional town
of Fingerbone, Idaho, in which novel of 1980
by Marilynne Robinson? Don’t know. Um… The Colour Purple?
No, that’s Alice Walker. Um, we don’t know. Sorry. It’s Housekeeping. What surname is shared by the faded
screen stars Jane and Blanche in both Henry Farrell’s 1960s
suspense novel, “Whatever Happened To Baby Jane?” and the 1962 film adaptation
with Bette Davis and Joan Crawford? I know…
I know this, but I’ve forgotten. THEY CHUCKLE
Um… Shall we…? Smith? Smith. No, it’s Hudson. Right, we’re going to
take a music round. For your music starter, you’re going
to hear a piece of classical music by a French composer. 10 points if you can give me
the composer’s name. CLASSICAL PIANO MUSIC PLAYS Ravel. It is Ravel, Piano Concerto in G. APPLAUSE As a young composer, Ravel made
five unsuccessful attempts to win France’s prestigious
Prix de Rome scholarship. Your music bonuses are works
by three major French composers likewise overlooked for that prize. Five points for each composer
you can name. Firstly, this composer. He made
four failed attempts at the prize. CLASSICAL MUSIC PLAYS Saint-Saens? Yeah. Saint-Saens. No, that’s Paul Dukas,
The Sorcerer’s Apprentice. Secondly, this composer.
He tried twice without success. CLASSICAL WOODWIND MUSIC PLAYS THEY CONFER What about Berlioz? Not Berlioz.
Boulez. Yeah. Boulez. That’s modern enough. OK. Boulez. No, that’s Messiaen,
Quartet For The End Of Time. Finally, this composer,
who also entered twice and failed. CLASSICAL MUSIC PLAYS Sounds like something
from a musical. THEY CONFER Try Saint-Saens? Try Saint-Saens.
Yeah. We’ll try Saint-Saens this time. It is, his Aquarium from Carnival of the Animals. Right, 10 points for this. Which two countries concluded the Treaty of Ayton in 1497 and the Treaty of Perpetual Peace
in 1502? The latter lasted only until 1513,
where one signatory invaded the other, meeting with disastrous
defeat and the death of their king. France and England. No. One of you buzz from King’s. France and Spain. No, it was England and Scotland.
10 points for this. To the north of modern-day Beirut,
which ancient seaport was particularly noted
for the export…? Tyre. No, you lose five points. ..which ancient seaport
was particularly noted for the export of papaya? The Phoenician alphabet
was developed there and its name is thought to be the
origin of the Greek word for book. Akkar. No, it’s Byblos.
10 points for this. Aquae Sextiae was the Roman name of
which city of southern France? The site of a university founded
in 1409, it lies close to
Montagne Sainte-Victoire, a favourite subject of
the artist Cezanne. Aix-en-Provence. Correct. APPLAUSE Three questions on China in
the 1920s for your bonuses now, UCL. According to its official history,
the Chinese Communist Party held its first national congress in
the French concession of which city? Shanghai. Shanghai, yeah. Shanghai.
Shanghai. Correct. Which nationalist commander
was behind the Shanghai massacre
of April 1927? He purged the Communist Party after
it had helped him secure the city in the Northern Expedition. Nationalist commander would be…
Chiang Kai-shek? Yeah. Maybe. Or could it be…? I don’t know. Want to try
Chiang Kai-shek? I don’t know. Try Chiang Kai-shek. Yeah. Nominate Walker. Chiang Kai-shek. Correct. You’ve now taken the lead. And in December 1927, a Communist revolt briefly captured
which southern city? It’s commander Ye Ting was
scapegoated by the party and left for exile. Nanchong? Nominate Fang. Nanchong. No, it was Guangzhou, or Canton. Right, 10 points for this. Long listed for
the Man Booker Prize in 2017, which novel by Zadie Smith takes
its title from a 1936…? Swing Time. Swing Time is correct. APPLAUSE Three questions on
the poet Robert Southey. A leading figure of
the early Romantic movement, which of Southey’s contemporaries
collaborated with him in 1794 on the three-act drama
The Fall of Robespierre? He was involved in the Revolution. It’s the right period…?
Early romantic, yeah. I think that’s a good guess. Wordsworth. No, it was Coleridge. As Poet Laureate, Southey became
embroiled in controversy after the unauthorised publication
of his early dramatic poem about which 14th-century English
revolutionary? Could it be the Peasants’ Revolt?
Yeah. So that’d be Wat Tyler?
Wat Tyler. Wat Tyler. Yeah. OK, Wat Tyler. Correct. Who attacked Southey
in his 1809 work English Bards and Scotch Reviewers? Southey later denounced him as belonging to a Satanic
school of poetry. Um… I’ve got no idea. Who was around at the time? I’m trying to think of poets
of the time. I don’t know. What year was it?
1790s, wasn’t it? Yeah. Who was alive then?
No idea. When was Byron? We’d better have an answer, I think.
Yeah, try Byron. Byron. Byron is correct, yes. Right, we’re going to take
a picture question now. For your picture starter, you’re going to see
a photograph of a building. 10 points if you can name
its principal architect. Is it Gehry? It is Frank Gehry – the Museum of Pop Culture
in Seattle. It’s regarded as an example of
blobism, or blobitecture. That is architecture based on
complex organic forms. Your picture bonuses are three
more examples of blobitecture. This time, I want you to name
the city in which each is located. Firstly, or five, this is on the
outskirts of which European city? Helpful wording has
of course been removed. Is that Munich? Good guess. The Allianz Arena,
I think, in Munich. Yeah, OK. OK. I’ve never seen it. Munich? Munich is right. Secondly, in which US city is this? Chicago, maybe? Maybe, yeah. Or LA. I don’t know. Try Chicago. I’ll go with you, I think. Well, I don’t know.
I don’t know. Chicago. Guess Chicago. Chicago. That is the Aqua tower in Chicago. And finally,
this building is in which UK city? Birmingham. Birmingham. Selfridges Building
in Birmingham is correct. 10 points for this. In mammalian anatomy, what term
denotes a thin wall of tissue that divides a structure
into two parts…? Septum? Septum is correct. You get three bonuses on pregnancy. Providing a buffer against
physical damage and helping to
stabilise temperature, what name is given to the fluid that
surrounds the foetus in the womb? Amniotic? Amniotic. Yeah. Amniotic. Correct. The foetus lies free
in the amniotic fluid, connected to the uterus by what spongy, disc-like mass
of tissue via the umbilical cord? The placenta. Placenta. Correct. From the old French for a cap,
what short name is given to the amnion, or membrane,
that covers the foetus? Amniotic sac?,
Oh, caul. Is it a caul? “She was born with a caul,”
like a thing over her face. Just… It’s a guess. A caul. Caul is correct, yes. 10 points for this. Augustus Henry FitzRoy,
the 3rd Duke of Grafton, and Henry Addington,
later the 1st Viscount Sidmouth, both succeeded prime ministers
who bore what surname? Pitt. Pitt is correct. Your bonuses this time,
UCL, are on plants. What is the common name for plants
of the polypody genius, species of which include
lady, maidenhair and sword? Fern. Fern? Fern… Probably.
I think they’re ferns. Fern. Correct. What is the common name
for pteridium aquilinum, a common fern with
large triangular fronds that can be
poisonous to livestock? Poison ivy? Yeah… No… Is that a fern? Yeah, I don’t know,
try it. Poisonous… Oh! Come on. Just guess. Poison ivy. No, it’s bracken. From the Greek for seed, what name denotes
the reproductive cells that develop into new ferns without fusing with
other reproductive cells? Spores. Spores.
Yeah, they’re spores. Spores? Spores is correct. Three and a half minutes to go,
10 points for this. Which two consecutive letters
of the alphabet are the initials of five actors
whose on-screen roles have included Gabriel Oak, Carolyn Burnham,
Jack Ryan, Mrs Robinson and Zorro? AB. AB is correct, yes. Right, these are your bonuses,
Kings. They’re on history. “Three emperors, three eights”
is a pneumonic for remembering the Year of Three Emperors
in which country in 1888? THEY WHISPER China or Japan, I think. I think
it’s Japan actually. Yeah? Japan. No, it’s Germany. Secondly, name two of the three men
who served as US president in 1881. 1881. Erm… What kind of time period are we
talking here? Taft? And Garfield, maybe. I don’t know. Taft and Garfield. No, Garfield WAS one. Arthur and Hayes were the other two,
so I can’t accept that. Who was pontiff at the end of the
most recent year of three popes in 1978? John Paul… John Paul II. Correct. APPLAUSE
Ten points for this. Which SI base unit is defined in
terms of the transition between the two…? Er, second. Second is correct. APPLAUSE Your bonuses are on
geological periods named after geographical areas. Firstly, which period is named after
a mountain range between the basins of the Rhine
and the Rhone? Jurassic.
Jurassic? Jurassic. Correct.
Named after a national subdivision, which period is sometimes known
as the age of fish? Pless? Pleistocene. Pleistocene? Pleistocene. No, it’s Devonian. Finally, which period of the
Palaeozoic era is named after a city and region
of western Russia? Silerian. Silerian?
Yeah, silerian. Silerian? Silerian. No, it’s permian.
Ten points for this. Electromagnetic radiation with a
frequency of one petahertz would fall in what region
of the spectrum? Ultraviolet. Correct.
APPLAUSE These bonuses are on
professional cycling. In professional cycling, the term
“grand tour” denotes multi-week stage races in which
three European countries? France, Spain… ..Italy? France, Spain, Italy? Yeah. France, Spain, and Italy. Correct. Known as “The Cannibal”, who won a
record 11 grand tours between 1968 and ’74? Don’t know. It’s Eddy Merckx.
In September 2017, who became only the third man to
achieve the double of winning both the Tour de France and the Vuelta
a Espana in the same year, and the first since 1978? Chris Froome. Chris Froome is correct.
Ten points for this. APPLAUSE
Which sport is the subject of the 1970 book
Only The Ball Was White, by the US writer Robert W Peterson? Baseball. Baseball is correct. APPLAUSE Your bonuses are on plays
by Edward Albee. In each case, name the play from the
description. First, Albee’s breakthrough play,
written in 1958, and concerning a publishing
executive and a stranger sitting on a bench in New York’s
Central Park. Don’t know. Just go with
Virginia Woolf. Who’s Afraid Of Virginia Woolf? No, it’s The Zoo Story.
Concerning an imperious… GONG And at the gong, King’s College
London have 145, University College London have 180. Well, you were going like a train
there at the end. Who knows? If we’d had another five minutes,
you might well have overtaken them. But sadly,
you couldn’t make up the distance. But thank you very much
for joining us, King’s. UCL, that’s a great score. Look forward to seeing you in the
next stage of the competition. Thank you. I hope you can join us
next time for another first-round match, but until then, it’s goodbye
from King’s College London. ALL: Goodbye. It’s goodbye from
University College London. ALL: Goodbye. And it’s goodbye from me. Goodbye. APPLAUSE