Rackham Graduate Exercises

Rackham Graduate Exercises

October 15, 2019 5 By Stanley Isaacs


[ APPLAUSE ] ♪ ♪>>CHAIR MARSH: GOOD MORNING EVERYONE AND WELCOME TO THESE RACKHAM GRADUATE EXERCISES. MY NAME IS NEIL MARSH; I AM A PROFESSOR OF CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY AND CHAIR OF THE FACULTY SENATE. ON BEHALF OF THE ENTIRE FACULTY, I CONGRATULATE ALL OF YOU GRADUATING TODAY. AT THIS TIME, I ASK ALL OF YOU TO RISE, IF YOU ARE ABLE, FOR THE THE SINGING OF OUR NATIONAL ANTHEM.>>KELLY BIXBY: ♪ OH, SAY, CAN YOU SEE, BY THE DAWN’S EARLY LIGHT ♪ ♪ WHAT SO PROUDLY WE HAILED AT THE TWILIGHT’S LAST GLEAMING♪ ♪ WHOSE BROAD STRIPES AND BRIGHT STARS THRO’ THE PERILOUS FIGHT ♪ ♪ O’ER THE RAMPARTS WE WATCHED, WERE SO GALLANTLY STREAMING ♪ ♪ AND THE ROCKETS RED GLARE, THE BOMBS BURSTING IN AIR ♪ ♪ GAVE PROOF THROUGH THE NIGHT THAT OUR FLAG WAS STILL THERE, ♪ ♪ OH, SAY, DOES THAT STAR-SPANGLED BANNER YET WAVE ♪ ♪ O’ER THE LAND OF THE FREE AND THE HOME OF THE BRAVE ♪ [ CHEERS AND APPLAUSE ]>>PROVOST PHILBERT: GOOD MORNING. I’M MARTIN PHILBERT, PROVOST OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN AND ALSO PROFESSOR OF TOXICOLOGY IN THE SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. IT’S MY GREAT PLEASURE TO WELCOME YOU TO THE 2019 GRADUATE EXERCISES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN. LET US THANK KELLY BIXBY FOR HER LOVELY RENDITION OF THE STAR SPANGLED BANNER. [ APPLAUSE ] AS WE BEGIN OUR CEREMONY, I ASK YOU TO JOIN ME IN REMEMBERING THE STUDENTS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA CHARLOTTE WHO DIED THIS WEEK. WE’RE GATHERED TO HONOR AND CELEBRATE TODAY’S GRADUATES. THEIR ACCOMPLISHMENTS ARE MANY, THEIR CREATIVITY IS ASTOUNDING, AND THEIR TENACITY IS IMPRESSIVE. LET US BEGIN BY APPLAUDING THEIR MYRIAD ACHIEVEMENTS. [ APPLAUSE ] WE ARE ALSO PLEASED TO RECOGNIZE THE MANY WAYS THAT FAMILIES, FRIENDS, AND FACULTY MEMBERS HAVE HELPED STUDENTS TO REACH THIS MOMENT. GRADUATES, PLEASE JOIN ME IN THANKING THE PEOPLE WHO HAVE PROVIDED YOU WITH THEIR LOVE AND SUPPORT. [ APPLAUSE ] TO GRADUATE MEANS, LITERALLY, TO MOVE TO THE NEXT LEVEL. YOU ARE READY, NOW, TO MAKE THAT MOVE, TO HEAD OFF TO NEW PLACES NEW POSITIONS AND TO NEW COMMUNITIES. BEFORE YOU DO SO, IT IS WORTH TAKING A FEW MOMENTS TO REFLECT ON WHAT YOU’VE LEARNED IN YOUR GRADUATE WORK. EACH OF YOU HAS BEEN IMMERSED IN YOUR FIELD, DIGGING DEEPLY INTO THE ACCUMULATED KNOWLEDGE OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, ETHNO-MUSICOLOGY, NEURAL CIRCUITS, ECONOMIC MIGRATION, ROBOTICS, OR ANOTHER OF OUR 260 AREAS OF STUDY. YOU HAVE ATTAINED AN IMPRESSIVE DEGREE OF MASTERY IN YOUR FIELD. I WANT TO SUGGEST, HOWEVER, THAT SOME OF THE MOST IMPORTANT WORK YOU’VE DONE HERE HAS BEEN LEARNING HOW TO ADVANCE KNOWLEDGE. IF WE DO OUR JOBS WELL, YOUR GRADUATE EDUCATION HAS HELPED YOU TO UNDERSTAND THE VALUE OF COLLABORATIVE WORK. AS LAST MONTH’S FIRST-EVER LOOK INTO A BLACK HOLE DEMONSTRATED, TO ACHIEVE THE “IMPOSSIBLE” WE NEED TO PUT TEAMS OF PEOPLE TOGETHER, SHARING AND TESTING IDEAS AND THEN DOING THE MANY SMALL, SPECIALIZED TASKS THAT ADVANCE OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE UNIVERSE. YOU’VE ALSO LEARNED TO APPRECIATE THE BENEFITS OF GATHERING VARYING PERSPECTIVES AS YOU DEFINE AND THEN DETERMINE HOW BEST TO APPROACH A COMPLEX PROBLEM. AS RESEARCH HERE AT MICHIGAN IS SHOWING, TO EFFECTIVELY ADDRESS POVERTY IT BEHOOVES US TO DRAW ON INSIGHTS FROM ECONOMICS, ANTHROPOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY, EDUCATION, SOCIOLOGY, PUBLIC HEALTH, URBAN DESIGN AND OTHER FIELDS. OUR UNDERSTANDING IS MUCH DEEPER AND OUR SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS ARE MORE ROBUST, MORE LIKELY TO SUCCEED, WHEN WE DRAW ON DIVERSE AREAS OF EXPERTISE. YOU’VE DISCOVERED, PERHAPS THE HARD WAY, THAT THERE IS MUCH TO BE LEARNED FROM UNEXPECTED OUTCOMES: THE EXPERIMENTS THAT DON’T WORK OR THE DATA THAT DOESN’T QUITE ALIGN WITH YOUR THEORY. WHEN OUR CAREFULLY THOUGHT OUT PLANS DON’T BRING THE HOPED-FOR RESULTS, WE PAUSE TO CONSIDER WHAT WE MISSED, WHAT WE OVERLOOKED, AND ARE PUSHED TO RE-EXAMINE ASSUMPTIONS. I EMPHASIZE THESE ATTRIBUTES OF GRADUATE EDUCATION BECAUSE THEY ARE KEYS TO YOUR FUTURE SUCCESS. THEY WILL CERTAINLY HELP YOU IN WHATEVER CAREER YOU HAVE CHOSEN. AND, QUITE IMPORTANTLY, THEY ARE ESSENTIAL IN YOUR LIVES AS ACTIVE CITIZENS IN A WORLD THAT IS IN GREAT NEED OF NEW IDEAS AND INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO COMPLEX PROBLEMS. THE MATHEMATICIAN AND PHILOSOPHER ALFRED NORTH WHITEHEAD THOUGHT A GOOD DEAL ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATION IN THE SOCIETY. IN HIS BOOK, THE AIMS OF EDUCATION, HE WROTE, “THE PROPER FUNCTION OF A UNIVERSITY IS THE IMAGINATIVE ACQUISITION OF KNOWLEDGE.” IMAGINATION, THE ABILITY HUMANS HAVE TO THINK IN CREATIVE WAYS AND TO EXPAND WHAT WE KNOW IS CRITICAL TO OUR SHARED FUTURE. THE WORLD BEFORE US POSES GREAT CHALLENGES. CAN WE TREAT THE DISEASES THAT THREATEN TO OVERWHELM US? CAN WE SUSTAIN SELF-GOVERNING SOCIETIES? WILL NEW TECHNOLOGIES IMPROVE THE HUMAN CONDITION? HOW WILL THE EMERGENCE OF NEW ART FORMS SHAPE THE WORLD AND THE LIVES OF INDIVIDUALS? WE KNOW THAT IT WILL TAKE BOTH KNOWLEDGE AND IMAGINATION TO ADDRESS THESE QUESTIONS. WE ARE CONFIDENT THAT YOU HAVE BOTH, IN GREAT MEASURE. WE ENCOURAGE YOU TO USE THEM AS YOU MAKE YOUR CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE WORLD. AS YOU LEAVE THE UNIVERSITY, WE ARE PROUD TO CELEBRATE YOUR ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND LOOK FORWARD TO YOUR CONTINUING SUCCESS. IT IS NOW MY PLEASURE TO IT INTRODUCE MARK SCHLISSEL, — EXCUSE ME. I GOT CHOKED UP OVER YOU. [ LAUGHTER ] IT IS NOW MY GREAT PLEASURE TO INTRODUCE MARK SCHLISSEL, THE 14TH PRESIDENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN. [ APPLAUSE ]>>PRESIDENT SCHLISSEL: THANK YOU PROVOST PHILBERT FOR THE INTRODUCTION AND I THOUGHT IT WAS A COUP OR SOMETHING, BUT THAT IS OKAY. SO THANKS VERY MUCH. GOOD MORNING, MICHIGAN GRADUATES, AND WELCOME TO ALL OF YOUR FAMILY AND OTHER GUESTS. I’D ALSO LIKE TO WELCOME THE FACULTY WHO ARE HERE TODAY, MANY TO HONOR THEIR STUDENTS AND ADVISEES WHO ARE GRADUATING. I CONGRATULATE THE MEMBERS OF THE CLASS OF 2019, AND I THANK EACH ONE OF YOU FOR ADVANCING DISCOVERY AND ENHANCING HUMAN KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING THROUGH YOUR GRADUATE STUDIES AT OUR GREAT UNIVERSITY. THE PURSUIT OF DISCOVERY HAS BEEN PART OF A UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN EDUCATION SINCE OUR FOUNDING, MORE THAN 200 YEARS AGO. OUR EARLY HISTORY BEGAN WITH ACQUISITIONS AND EXPLORATIONS THAT ESTABLISHED A “PHILOSOPHICAL APPARATUS” AND A “CABINET OF NATURAL HISTORY” THAT CONTINUES TO GROUND ALL WE DO IN THOUGHT AND RESEARCH. IN THE DECADES SINCE, OUR TALENTED FACULTY AND STUDENTS HAVE EMBRACED THIS COMMITMENT. AND AS A RESULT, YOU GRADUATE TODAY FROM THE NO. 1 PUBLIC UNIVERSITY IN THE NATION IN RESEARCH PRODUCTIVITY. THAT’S WORTH A ROUND OF APPLAUSE. [ APPLAUSE ] OUR DEDICATION TO RESEARCH FOR THE PUBLIC GOOD MAKES U OF M A TRULY SPECIAL PLACE — AND YOU TRULY SPECIAL GRADUATES. MICHIGAN IS A PLACE WHERE RESEARCH AND EDUCATION FORM AN IMMUTABLE BOND. WHERE NO CHALLENGE IS TOO BIG OR TOO COMPLEX. WHERE DISCOVERY IS NOT ONLY A PRODUCT OF WHAT WE DO, IT’S A PURPOSE. WHILE EARNING YOUR GRADUATE DEGREES, YOU’VE PARTICIPATED IN DISCOVERY AT THE HIGHEST LEVELS. YOU’VE WORKED ALONGSIDE YOUR PROFESSORS TO CREATE NEW KNOWLEDGE AND ACHIEVE NEW LEVELS OF UNDERSTANDING. YOU’VE FORMULATED NEW QUESTIONS AND HELPED REDEFINE ACADEMIC DISCIPLINES. AND THROUGHOUT THIS EXCITING, CHALLENGING, AND SOMETIMES GRUELING, PROCESS, YOU’VE BEEN PREPARING TO ADVANCE OUR SOCIETY. YOU’VE TASTED THE LIFE OF THE MIND, AND AS GRADUATES YOU TAKE WITH YOU NOT ONLY ADVANCED GREES FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, BUT ALSO A COMMAND OF AND A REVERENCE FOR THE DISCOVERY PROCESS. AND DISCOVERY BEGINS WITH HAVING AN OPEN MIND. AS THE INFLUENTIAL SCHOLAR AND FORMER UM FACULTY MEMBER JOHN DEWEY WROTE, “TO THE OPEN MIND, NATURE AND SOCIAL EXPERIENCE ARE FULL OF VARIED AND SUBTLE CHALLENGES TO LOOK FURTHER.” THE TRULY OPEN MIND CAN EVALUATE EVIDENCE, CONDUCT EXPERIMENTS AND RIGOROUSLY CONSIDER DIFFERENT IDEAS AND PERSPECTIVES. AN OPEN MIND ENHANCES INNOVATION AND PROMOTES CREATIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING. OUR LIFE SCIENCES INSTITUTE DIRECTOR ROGER CONE TELLS A GREAT STORY ABOUT BEING OPEN TO NEW PERSPECTIVES AND APPROACHES. HIS LAB SOMETIMES WORKS WITH HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS, AND THEY WERE STUDYING HANTAVIRUS, WHICH IS SPREAD BY RODENTS AND CAN CAUSE RESPIRATORY DISEASE IN HUMANS THAT IS SOMETIMES FATAL. IT’S MOST PREVALENT IN RURAL AREAS IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. DR. CONE SAYS THAT A RESEARCHER IN THE LAB HAD SPENT A DECADE LOOKING UNSUCCESSFULLY FOR HANTAVIRUS SURVIVORS TO STUDY IMMUNE RESPONSES. THE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS USED SOCIAL MEDIA TO ACCESS THEIR HOME COMMUNITIES IN NEW MEXICO — AND FOUND TWO SURVIVORS IN A MATTER OF WEEKS. THE DISCOVERY PROCESS ALSO REQUIRES ASKING SMART QUESTIONS — AS EACH OF YOU HAS DONE IN YOUR GRADUATE STUDIES. DARWIN GUEVARRA, A DOCTORAL STUDENT IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, FORMULATED A RESEARCH QUESTION AROUND WHAT TYPES OF PURCHASES MAKE US THE HAPPIEST. HE THEN PUBLISHED WORK THAT EXAMINED THE IMPACT OF EXPERIENTIAL PRODUCTS, SUCH AS GUITARS AND BOOKS, ADDING A DIMENSION BEYOND THE MATERIAL GOODS AND LIFE EXPERIENCES THAT WERE THE FOCUS OF PRIOR RESEARCH. ANOTHER WONDERFUL FEATURE OF THE DISCOVERY PROCESS IS THE ROLE OF SERENDIPITY OR ACCIDENT. THAT DOESN’T MEAN ALL YOU HAVE TO BE IS LUCKY, HOWEVER. THE GREAT 19TH CENTURY BIOLOGIST LOUIS PASTEUR POINTED OUT THAT “CHANCE FAVORS THE PREPARED MIND.” WHILE A GREAT MANY BREAKTHROUGHS HAVE HONESTLY HAPPENED BY ACCIDENT, A RIGOROUS DISCOVERY PROCESS WAS VIRTUALLY ALWAYS IN PLACE, LIGHTING THE WAY TO KNOWLEDGE. AND IT’S ALWAYS HARD WORK. ONE OF MY FACULTY COLLEAGUES AT JOHNS HOPKINS, PETER AGRE, WAS TRYING TO DETERMINE THE FUNCTION OF SPECIFIC SURFACE PROTEINS IN RED BLOOD CELLS. HE WOULD INJECT MESSENGER RNA’S FOR EACH PROTEIN INTO FROG EGGS AND OBSERVED THAT ONE RESULTED IN THE EGG SWELLING AND THEN BURSTING OPEN RIGHT BEFORE HIS EYES. IT TURNS OUT HE HAD DISCOVERED THE FIRST WATER CHANNEL OR AQUAPORIN. IT ALLOWS WATER TO TRAVEL ACROSS CELL MEMBRANES AND IS CRITICAL FOR KIDNEY FUNCTION AMONGST OTHER THINGS. PETER WAS AWARDED THE 2003 NOBEL PRIZE IN CHEMISTRY FOR THIS SERENDIPITOUS BUT PROFOUNDLY IMPORTANT DISCOVERY. BRIDGET QUINN, AN MFA CANDIDATE IN THE STAMPS SCHOOL OF ART AND DESIGN, HAS EXAMINED THE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE URBAN AREAS AND NATURE. SHE WORKS TO RAISE AWARENESS ABOUT WATER POLLUTION IN HER HOME OF WARREN, MICHIGAN. WHILE EXPLORING SPACES FOR AN ART PROJECT IN 2017, SHE DISCOVERED “OFF-THE-CHARTS” COUNTS OF E. COLI BACTERIA IN TWO LOCATIONS IN STERLING HEIGHTS. THESE LEVELS ARE DANGEROUS TO PUBLIC HEALTH, AND THE STATE OF MICHIGAN IS INVESTIGATING THEIR SOURCE. IT’S ACQUIRING THE BEST KNOWLEDGE, THE RIGHT TRAINING, AND THE NECESSARY TOOLS THAT ENSURES YOU WILL NEVER TRULY BE STUMBLING AROUND IN THE DARK. THESE ARE ALL VITAL COMPONENTS OF THE DISCOVERY PROCESS, BECAUSE THE THINGS WE DISCOVER ARE ALMOST INVARIABLY OUTSIDE OF OUR CURRENT IMAGINATION. OFTEN, NEW KNOWLEDGE GAINED IN PURSUIT OF ANSWERING ONE QUESTION, TURNS OUT TO BE SPECTACULARLY USEFUL IN A COMPLETELY DIFFERENT WAY. FORMER U OF M POST-DOC HAMILTON SMITH DISCOVERED THE MECHANISM THAT BACTERIA USE TO PREVENT THEIR INFECTION BY VIRUSES. THE FAMILY OF PROTEINS SMITH DISCOVERED, RESTRICTION ENZYMES, PROVED TO BE THE KEY TOOL THAT SPAWNED THE GENETIC ENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY REVOLUTION. SMITH WON THE NOBEL PRIZE FOR HIS WORK IN 1978. MAJOR DISCOVERIES THAT AFFECT OUR LIVES NOW WEREN’T EVEN CONCEPTUALIZED JUST A FEW YEARS AGO. FOR INSTANCE, TAKE THE IMAGE OF THE BLACK HOLE THAT PROVOST PHILBERT MENTIONED A FEW MOMENTS AGO. FAR CLOSER TO HOME, JUST A FEW YEARS AGO, COULD WE HAVE IMAGINED THAT WE’D NEED POLICIES AROUND ELECTRIC SCOOTERS ON OUR SIDEWALKS AND DRONES IN OUR AIRSPACE? DON’T LEAVE THEM IN OUR FRONT YARD. [ LAUGHTER ] THE FUTURE OF THE DISCOVERY PROCESS WILL CERTAINLY BE INFLUENCED BY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE — AND MANY OF ITS QUESTIONS AND BENEFITS ARE BEING EXAMINED RIGHT HERE AT U OF M. WE KNOW THAT MACHINES ARE GOOD AT IDENTIFYING PATTERNS, EXTRACTING SIGNALS FROM NOISE, AND PROCESSING HUGE AMOUNTS OF HISTORIC AND REAL-TIME DATA TO INFORM DECISIONS OR EVEN MAKE PREDICTIONS. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IS SPEEDING UP THE PROCESS OF DISCOVERY, AND CHANGING THE NATURE OF WORK, WHILE ALSO ENHANCING HUMAN LIFE THROUGH APPLICATIONS ACROSS MANY DISCIPLINES. HEATH CARE IS JUST ONE EXAMPLE. KASVHI GUPTA, A MASTER’S CANDIDATE IN OUR SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, HAS WRITTEN ABOUT THE POTENTIAL OF A “THREE-WAY PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN A.I., HEALTH CARE PROVIDER AND PATIENT”. IN PRECISION HEALTH, WHERE DATA SUPPORTS HUMAN INTERACTIONS AND PRACTICE. HOWEVER, SHE ALSO NOTES THAT PRACTITIONERS MUST UNDERSTAND THEIR “ROLE IN CONTRIBUTING DATA TO HEALTH SYSTEMS AND ENSURING MACHINE ALGORITHMS ARE ETHICAL. AND REPRESENTATIVE OF POPULATIONS.” SO AS WE APPROACH THE DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY THAT IS CAPABLE OF GENERAL INTELLIGENCE OR THE ABILITY TO MAKE DECISIONS INDEPENDENT OF HUMANS WE MUST CAREFULLY CONSIDER THE IMPLICATIONS OF OUR WORK, ITS UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES. HOW MIGHT A.I. FURTHER AID DISCOVERY? HOW MIGHT THE NATURE AND PURPOSE OF EDUCATION CHANGE AS A RESULT? WHAT ETHICAL QUESTIONS DO WE NEED TO BE ASKING ALL ALONG THE WAY? AS U OF M ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE PROFESSOR JASON CORSO SAYS, “GENERAL INTELLIGENCE IS COMPLEX AND IS A QUAGMIRE OF POSSIBILITY AND UNCERTAINTY.” CLASS OF 2019, YOUR EXPERIENCE HERE WITH THE PROCESS OF DISCOVERY HAS POSITIONED YOU TO LEAD — IN THE LABS, COMPANIES, UNIVERSITIES, ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMUNITIES YOU WILL JOIN NEXT. I URGE TO KEEP AN OPEN MIND, CONTINUE TO ASK QUESTIONS, BASE YOUR DECISIONS ON DEEP THOUGHT AND THE RIGOROUS ANALYSIS OF DATA — AND SHARE YOUR WORK SO IT HAS THE GREATEST IMPACT. OUR WORLD NEEDS YOU. YOUR DISCOVERIES WILL CARRY FORWARD THE GREAT LEGACY BUILT THROUGH THE GENERATIONS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN — AND CHANGE THE WORLD FOR THE BETTER. THIS IS NO HIGHER PURPOSE. SO THANK YOU ALL VERY MUCH. CONGRATULATIONS ON YOUR GRADUATION AND GO BLUE! [ APPLAUSE ] ♪ FOUNDED IN THE WILDERNESS ♪ ♪ IN EIGHTEEN SEVENTEEN; ♪ ♪ IN EXCELLENCE AND STRENGTH ♪ ♪ IT GREW ♪ ♪ NOURISHED BY A DREAM ♪ ♪ THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN ♪ THE PEOPLE SAID, ♪ ♪ “BE FREE ♪ ♪ TO TEACH, ♪ ♪ TO SERVE, ♪ ♪ TO PROBE THE UNKNOWN;” ♪ ♪ OUR UNIVERSITY ♪ ♪ HER CHILDREN COME ♪ ♪ FROM ROUND THE WORLD ♪ ♪ TO DRINK FROM FREEDOM’S STREAM, ♪ ♪ WHERE ART, ♪ ♪ WHERE SCIENCE, ♪ ♪ WHERE TRUTH’S REVEALED ♪ ♪ TO THOSE WHOSE MINDS WOULD SING. ♪ ♪ THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN ♪ THE PEOPLE SAID, ♪ ♪ “BE FREE ♪ ♪ TO TEACH, ♪ ♪ TO SERVE, ♪ ♪ TO PROBE THE UNKNOWN;” ♪ ♪ OUR UNIVERSITY ♪ ♪ SHE LOOKS BEYOND ♪ ♪ TODAY’S PALE LIGHT, ♪ ♪ SHE SEEKS IN FIELDS DIVERSE.♪ ♪ NEW KNOWLEDGE FOUND ♪ ♪ WITHIN HER HALLS ♪ ♪ HAVE CHANGED THE UNIVERSE. ♪ ♪ THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN ♪ ♪ THE PEOPLE SAID, ♪ ♪ “BE FREE ♪ ♪ TO TEACH, ♪ ♪ TO SERVE, ♪ ♪ TO PROBE THE UNKNOWN;” ♪ ♪ OUR UNIVERSITY ♪ [ APPLAUSE ] ♪ WHEN YOU WALK THROUGH A STORM♪>>KEEP YOUR CHIN UP HIGH. ♪ AND DON’T BE AFRAID OF THE DARK ♪ ♪ AT THE END OF THE STORM ♪ IS A GOLDEN SKY. ♪ AND THE SWEET SILVER SONG OF A LARK. ♪ WALK ON, THROUGH THE WIND ♪ ♪ WALK ON, THROUGH THE RAIN ♪ ♪ THOUGH YOUR DREAMS BE TOSSED AND BLOWN ♪ ♪ WALK ON, WALK ON, WITH HOPE IN YOUR HEART ♪ ♪ AND YOU’LL NEVER WALK ALONE♪ ♪ YOU’LL NEVER WALK ALONE ♪ ♪ WHEN YOU WALK THROUGH A STORM♪ KEEP YOUR CHIN UP HIGH. ♪ AND DON’T BE AFRAID OF THE DARK ♪ ♪ AT THE END OF THE STORM ♪ IT’S A GOLDEN SKY. ♪ AND THE SWEET SILVER SONG OF A LARK. ♪ WALK ON, THROUGH THE WIND ♪ ♪ WALK ON, THROUGH THE RAIN ♪ ♪ THOUGH YOUR DREAMS BE TOSSED AND BLOWN ♪ ♪ WALK ON, WALK ON, WITH HOPE IN YOUR HEART ♪ ♪ AND YOU’LL NEVER WALK ALONE♪ ♪ YOU’LL NEVER WALK ALONE ♪ ALONE. [ APPLAUSE ]>>PRESIDENT SCHLISSEL: NOBEL LAUREATE, PROFESSOR OF CELL AND DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY, AND HOWARD HUGHES MEDICAL INSTITUTE INVESTIGATOR RANDY SCHEKMAN IS ONE OF THE WORLD’S PREM NENT BIOLOGISTS. IN 2013, HE, JAMES ROTHMAN, AND THOMAS SÜDHOF SHARED THE NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSIOLOGY OR MEDICINE “FOR THEIR DISCOVERIES OF MACHINERY REGULATING VESICLE TRAFFIC, A MAJOR TRANSPORT SYSTEM IN OUR CELLS.” THE GENES AND PROTEINS HIS LABORATORY DISCOVERED IN YEAST HAVE COUNTERPARTS IN ALL EUKARYOTES AND HAVE BEEN IMPLICATED IN SEVERAL HUMAN GENETIC DISEASES. HIS RESEARCH PROVIDED THE KNOWLEDGE NECESSARY FOR THE BIOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY TO USE YEAST AS A PLATFORM TO PRODUCE CLINICALLY IMPORTANT HUMAN SECRETED PROTEINS, INCLUDING RECOMBINANT HUMAN INSULIN. THE WORLD’S SUPPLY OF RECOMBINANT HEPATITIS B VACCINE IS ALSO PRODUCED IN YEAST USING THE VESICLE TRANSPORT AND SECRETION SYSTEM THAT RANDY AND HIS STUDENTS DISCOVERED. BECAUSE HEPATITIS B INFECTION IS THE MAJOR CAUSE OF LIVER CANCER ONCE FULLY DEPLOYED THIS VACCINE HAS THE POTENTIAL TO REDUCE THE INCIDENCE OF LIVER CANCER BY 90%. HE IS A CHARTER MEMBER OF UM’S LIFE SCIENCES INSTITUTE SCIENTIFIC ADVISORY BOARD AND AUTHORITATIVE SPOKESPERSON ON THE CRITICAL ROLE PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES PLAY IN ADVANCING SCIENCE. PROFESSOR SCHEKMAN IS ALSO A MEMBER OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, AND THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. TOMORROW, WE LOOK FORWARD TO PRESENTING HIM THE HONORARY DEGREE, DOCTOR OF SCIENCE, AT OUR SPRING COMMENCEMENT CEREMONY. DR. SCHEKMAN, WE ARE HONORED TO WELCOME YOU. I INVITE YOU TO ADDRESS OUR GRADUATES. [ APPLAUSE ]>>DR. RANDY SCHEKMAN: THANK YOU PRESIDENT SCHLISSEL. COLLEAGUES, GRADUATES, FAMILY MEMBERS, AND FRIENDS, WELCOME TO GRADUATION, MY FAVORITE ACTIVITY OF THE YEAR. MANY PEOPLE FROM MY GENERATION DIDN’T ATTEND SUCH CEREMONIES BECAUSE THEY WERE CONSIDERED TOO CONFORMIST. OF COURSE, I HAVE MADE UP FOR THAT ALMOST EVERY YEAR OF THE FORTY-THREE I HAVE BEEN ON THE FACULTY AT UC BERKELEY, INCLUDING ONE YEAR WHERE I WAS ABLE TO INTRODUCE MY PARENTS WHOM I HAD DEPRIVED OF MY COLLEGE AND PH.D. CEREMONIES. OVER THE YEARS I HAVE WITNESSED BEACH BALLS BEING TOSSED AROUND THE GREEK THEATER AND ZELLERBACH AT CAL, A CACOPHONY OF AIR HORNS, RAUCOUS CHEERING SECTIONS, GRADUATES WEARING VIRTUALLY NOTHING UNDER THEIR ROBES. [ LAUGHTER ] AND STUDENTS DOING BACK FLIPS ACROSS THE STAGE. THOUGHT NOT BOTH AT THE SAME TIME, AT LEAST NOT YET. [ LAUGHTER ] CONGRATULATIONS, MOST OF YOU ARE NOW FREE TO DUMP ALL THOSE RANDOM FACTS THAT YOU CRAMMED IN OVER THE YEARS. THE OPERATOR’S MANUAL THAT COME WITH YOUR DEGREE DOES NOT CALL FOR YOU TO REMEMBER THE NAMES OF THE NINE MUSES, THE QUADRATIC EQUATION OR THE ORDER OF THE PLANETS, AS BILLY COLLINS MEMORABLY NOTED IN HIS POEM, “FORGETFULLNESS”. THE FACT THAT ATP IS THE ENERGY CURRENCY OF YOUR CELLS IS BUT A FLEETING MEMORY JUMBLED TOGETHER WITH THE LONG HOURS OF STUDY IN THE LIBRARIES AND LABORATORIES, PARTIES AND LAUGHTER, THAT NO DOUBT FILLED YOUR DAYS AND NIGHTS THESE PAST YEARS. SO WHAT WAS MICHIGAN ALL ABOUT OTHER THAN AS A MEANS TO DELIVER YOU TO THE NEXT STATION IN YOUR LIFE: A CAREER IN LAW, BUSINESS, ENGINEERING, MEDICINE, EDUCATION, THE ARTS AND THE HEALTH SCIENCES? WE LIKE TO THINK YOU LEARNED SOMETHING MORE THAN THE MERE FACTS THAT FILLED THE HOURS OF LECTURES AND REAMS OF NOTES. AS YOU WALK AWAY FROM THIS CEREMONY, CONSIDER WHERE YOU ARE NOW COMPARED TO YOUR FIRST DAYS AT MICHIGAN. IF WE SUCCEEDED, YOU ARE NOW MORE CRITICAL OF FACTS AND SOURCES. YOU WILL QUESTION THE TRUTH OF SOME COMMON WISDOM AND ASK FOR THE EVIDENCE THAT SUPPORTS A BROAD ASSERTION. WHEN A DRUG COMPANY BOASTS OF SOME NEW WONDER CURE, YOU WILL REMAIN SKEPTICAL UNLESS THE FACTS AND CONTROLS ARE SPELLED OUT. WHEN YOU READ ABOUT A NEW DISCOVERY, YOU WILL WANT TO KNO WHAT WAS LEARNED ABOUT THE PROCESS AND HOW IT IS MORE DEEPLY UNDERSTOOD AND NOT SIMPLY THE PRACTICAL VALUE OF THE FINDINGS. YOU WILL NOT ACCEPT ON AUTHORITY THE WORD OF SOME BIG SHOT PROFESSOR, EVEN A CAL NOBEL LAUREATE, IF HE OR SHE USES HIS POSITION TO ESPOUSE SOME UNSUBSTANTIATED NONSENSE. WE WIN IF YOUR MIND IS STRETCHED, BUT NOT FILLED. AND WHAT KEEPS US GOING, THOSE OF US WHO DO NEED TO REMEMBER THE AMINO ACIDS AND THE GENETIC CODE? WHY DO WE FIGHT THE BATTLE FOR RESEARCH FUNDING, TENURE, ENDLESS REPETITION OF THE LECTURE MATERIAL AND MANY OF THE SAME QUESTIONS AND CONCERNS ABOUT EXTRA POINTS ON THE REGRADES? IT’S THE CERTAIN KNOWLEDGE THAT WE WILL WITNESS YEAR IN AND YEAR OUT THE SAME THRILL OF UNDERSTANDING DISPLAYED ON YOUR BRIGHT FACES AS YOU MARCH P IN AND OUT OF OUR CLASSROOMS, LABORATORIES AND OFFICES. IT IS THE MAGIC OF DISCOVERY WHEN A RESEARCH STUDENT IS THE FIRST TO REALIZE SOME NEW PRINCIPLE THAT SHINES A TINY LIGHT ON AN UNEXPLORED CORNER OF A CELL OR TO DISCOVER AND TRANSLATE A NEW TEXT OR TO REINTERPRET A WELL-KNOWN BIT OF HISTORY. WE KEEP GOING BECAUSE THOSE OF US BEFORE MADE THIS INSTITUTION ONE OF THE FINEST PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES IN THE COUNTRY AND IT IS OUR OBLIGATION TO PASS THIS ON IN EVEN BETTER SHAPE. WE DO THIS BECAUSE THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN HAS PROVIDED GENERATIONS OF MIDDLE- AND WORKING-CLASS FAMILIES WITH AN OPPORTUNITY TO BUILD A BETTER LIFE. THE REAL WORLD COMES TO ANN ARBOR! THE ELITE PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES CONSIDER THEIR MIDDLE CLASS TO BE FAMILIES WITH AN INCOME OF AS MUCH AS 180-200,000 PER YEAR. BUT 70% OF COLLEGE STUDENTS IN THE U.S. ATTEND PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS WHERE FAMILY INCOM IS CLOSER TO THE OVERALL NATIONAL AVERAGE. I HAVE REMAINED A FACULTY MEMBER AT BERKELEY FOR OVER 40 YEARS IN PART BECAUSE PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES ARE THE MOST EFFECTIVE ENGINE OF SOCIAL MOBILITY IN OUR SOCIETY. OPPORTUNITIES FOR EDUCATION IN PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES EXPLODED IN THE 1960’S. THE SPACE RACE INITIATED BY DWIGHT EISENHOWER AND JOHN F. KENNEDY LED TO A SUBSTANTIALLY INCREASED FEDERAL INVESTMENT IN SCIENCE AND SCIENCE EDUCATION. WE ENJOY A PRIVILEGED POSITION IN THE WORLD BECAUSE OF THE WISE INVESTMENT OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUPPORT OF UNIVERSITY AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE BASIC SCIENCE. GOVERNMENT FUNDING OF BASIC RESEARCH IN THE U.S. STARTED AFTER WORLD WAR II WITH A TRANSFORMATIVE REPORT “SCIENCE: ENDLESS FRONTIERS”, WRITTEN BY VANNEVAR BUSH THE SCIENCE ADVISOR TO PRESIDENTS ROOSEVELT AND TRUMAN. HE WROTE, “SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS ON A BROAD FRONT RESULTS FROM THE FREE PLAY OF FREE INTELLECTS, WORKING ON SUBJECTS OF THEIR OWN CHOICE, IN THE MANNER DICTATED BY THEIR CURIOSITY FOR EXPLORATION OF THE UNKNOWN, FREEDOM OF INQUIRY MUST BE PRESERVED UNDER ANY PLAN FOR GOVERNMENT SUPPORT OF SCIENCE.” MY FELLOW NOBEL LAUREATES OF 2013, JIM ROTHMAN AND TOM SÜDHOF DISCOVERED THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF NEUROTRANSMITTER RELEASE AT THE JUNCTION OF NERVE CELLS AND BETWEEN NERVE AND MUSCLE CELLS. THE MOLECULES THEY PROBED ARE THE TARGETS OF A POTENT TOXIN PRODUCED BY A POISONOUS BACTERIUM THAT CAUSES BOTULISM. NO ONE COULD HAVE PREDICTED A PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF THIS KNOWLEDGE YET BOTOX, THE COMMERCIAL TERM FOR THAT TOXIN, IS NOW A MULTIBILLION DOLLAR INDUSTRY. THE USES OF BOTOX EXTEND WELL BEYOND THE COSMETIC, INCLUDING THE TREATMENT OF DEBILITATING NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES SUCH AS AFFLICTED THE CONCERT PIANIST LEON FLEISCHER WHO AFTER 30 YEARS OF PARALYSIS, HAS NOW BEE RETURNED TO THE CONCERT STAGE. THE WORK IN MY LABORATORY PROBED THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF PROTEIN SECRETION IN BAKER’S YEAST. WE HAD NO NOTION OF ANY PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF THIS WORK, AND YET AFTER WE LEARNED THAT YEAST CELLS USE A PATHWAY FUNDAMENTALLY THE SAME AS IN HUMAN CELLS, THE BIOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY APPLIED THIS KNOWLEDGE TO ENGINEER THE PRODUCTION OF COMMERCIALLY USEFUL QUANTITIES OF HUMAN PROTEINS. ONE-THIRD OF THE WORLD SUPPLY OF RECOMBINANT HUMAN INSULIN IS PRODUCED BY PER FERMENTATION N YEAST. AND YET WE FACE A NEW SKEPTICISM OF SCIENCE, GROUNDED IN THE POLITICS OF ENERGY AND COMMERCE, CHALLENGING THE CONSENSUS SCIENTIFIC VIEW THAT OUR CLIMATE IS INFLUENCED BY HUMAN ACTIVITY. WE MUST WELCOME SKEPTICISM, BUT AGAIN, THE CHALLENGE MUST BE ON THE BASIS OF EXPERIMENT, OBSERVATION AND THEORY, NOT BLIND DOGMA. OR A GUT FEELING. WE HEAR ARGUMENTS THAT THE JURY IS STILL OUT AND THAT WE MUST CONTINUE TO OBSERVE, WHICH OF COURSE IS TRUE. BUT THE ARGUMENTS RING HOLLOW WHEN IT COMES TO THE APPLICATION OF OUR KNOWLEDGE TO PUBLIC POLICY AND THEY REMIND US OF THE CONGRESSIONAL TESTIMONY OF THE EXECUTIVES OF THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY WHO IN 1994 ASSERTED THAT “CIGARETTES MAY CAUSE LUNG CANCER, HEART DISEASE AND OTHER PROBLEMS, BUT THE EVIDENCE IS NOT CONCLUSIVE, UNQUOTE. SOUND FAMILIAR? SCIENCE PROGRESSES BY THE SLOW AND STEADY ACCUMULATION OF OBSERVATION, THEORY AND EXPERIMENT. FACTS ARE ESTABLISHED ONLY AFTER EXTENSIVE AND SOMETIMES CRITICAL EVALUATION WITH OPPOSING SIDES CONTESTING ALTERNATIVE RESULTS AND INTERPRETATIONS. TWENTIETH CENTURY AUSTRIAN-BORN BRITISH PHILOSOPHER OF SCIENCE KARL POPPER ONCE WROTE, “SCIENCE MUST BEGIN WITH MYTHS, AND WITH THE CRITICISM OF MYTHS.” FOR POPPER, SCIENCE IS UNIQUE IN ITS SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO ERRORS AND ITS EMPHASIS ON SELF-CORRECTION. POPPER WAS BEST KNOWN FOR HIS DOCTRINE OF FALSIFIABILITY; IN OTHER WORDS, THE IMPORTANCE OF THE TESTABILITY OF A HYPOTHESIS. IN OTHER WORDS, WHAT DISTINGUISHES THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD FROM OTHER METHODS OF INVESTIGATION IS THAT IT IS A METHOD OF ATTEMPTING TO DISCOVER THE WEAKNESSES OF A THEORY — TO “REFUTE OR TO FALSIFY THE THEORY.” “SCIENCE HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH THE QUEST FOR CERTAINTY OR PROBABILITY OR RELIABILITY,” WROTE POPPER. “WE ARE NOT INTERESTED IN ESTABLISHING SCIENTIFIC THEORIES AS SECURE, OR CERTAIN, OR PROBABLE, WE ARE ONLY INTERESTED IN CRITICIZING THEM AND TESTING THEM, HOPING TO FIND OUT WHERE WE ARE MISTAKEN·” OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE AGE OF THE EARTH AND OF THE UNIVERSE AND THE PRINCIPLE OF BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION ARE SOLID PRODUCTS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD HAVING BEEN ESTABLISHED OVER DECADES, INDEED CENTURIES OF INVESTIGATION. AND YET, THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD HOLDS THAT THESE PRINCIPLES MUST REMAIN SUBJECT TO SKEPTICAL INQUIRY AND REFINEMENT. BUT THE CHALLENGES MUST THEMSELVES BE BASED ON SCIENTIFIC REASONING AND NOT THE DOGMA OF SKEPTICS WHO WOULD RELY ON MYTHS FROM THOUSANDS OF YEARS AGO THAT ARE NOT THEMSELVES SUBJECT TO THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD. SUCH SKEPTICS COME AND GO, BUT THE FRUIT OF HUMAN KNOWLEDGE WILL REMAIN AND ADVANCE. WE FACE A DETERMINED OPPOSITION THAT WOULD MISREPRESENT THE PREVAILING VIEW OF EXPERT SCIENTISTS, AND WORSE YET, WOULD ATTEMPT TO EXPUNGE FROM GOVERNMENT SOURCES ANY MENTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND CUT OFF FUNDING FOR CONTINUING TO ADVANCE THE SCIENCE EVEN WHILE ASSERTING THAT THE SCIENCE MUST CONTINUE. BUT HOW CAN IT CONTINUE WITHOUT FUNDING OR ACCESS TO THE STORE OF KNOWLEDGE ALREADY ACCUMULATED BY GOVERNMENT SCIENTISTS? FORTUNATELY, THIS COUNTRY IS NOT ALONE IN THE MARCH OF PROGRESS AND CLIMATE SCIENCE WILL ADVANCE ELSEWHERE AND THROUGH THE EFFORTS OF PROGRESSIVE STATES AND IN THE PRIVATE SECTOR WHERE FOR EXAMPLE, EMPLOYMENT IN RENEWABLE ENERGY INDUSTRIES IS ACCELERATING AT A PACE FAR OUTSTRIPPING THE FOSSIL FUEL INDUSTRY. WE MAY SUSTAIN A TEMPORARY SETBACK HERE IN THE U.S., BUT THE MARCH OF PROGRESS FUELED BY THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD WILL ADVANCE AND ULTIMATELY TACKLE OUR GREATEST CHALLENGES. THESE ARE THE CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES THAT YOU NOW FACE. GO BLUE! [ APPLAUSE ]>>DEAN SOLOMON: THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR ADDRESS, DR. SCHEKMAN. IT IS MY PLEASURE, ON BEHALF OF THE HORACE H. RACKHAM SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES, TO OFFER BRIEF REMARKS. I AM MIKE SOLOMON, THE RACKHAM DEAN. IN A FEW MOMENTS, YOU ARE GOING TO PROCEED ACROSS THIS STAGE AND RECEIVE ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT PIECES OF PAPER THAT YOU HAVE EARNED IN YOUR LIFE. IT IS AN EXCITING FEELING AND I KNOW THAT BECAUSE IT WAS ALMOST 25 YEARS AGO THAT I RECEIVED ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT PIECES OF PAPER PAPER IN MINE. IN MY LIFE. I’M TALKING, OF COURSE, ABOUT A RANDOM PIECE OF MAIL THAT CAME TO ME FROM AUSTRALIA. I WAS FINISHING MY DOCTORAL WORK AND RUNNING OUT OF TIME TO APPLY FOR A POST-DOCTORAL RESEARCH POSITION WHEN ONE DAY MY LAB MATE APPROACHED ME HOLDING A LETTER FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE AND SAYING, “HEY MIKE, YOU COULD CHANGE YOUR LIFE! MOVE TO A NEW CONTINENT!” HE WAS JOKING. BUT THE VERY SERIOUS TRUTH WAS THAT I DIDN’T HAVE A JOB. AND THE MORE I LOOKED INTO IT, I REALIZED THERE WAS SOMEONE AT MELBOURNE WORKING BOTH IN THE FIELD IN WHICH I HAD DONE MY DOCTORAL STUDY AS WELL AS IN A NEW FIELD TOWARD WHICH I WAS INTERESTED IN MOVING MY CAREER. A COUPLE OF MONTHS LATER AND A MERE THREE DAYS AFTER I TURNED IN MY DISSERTATION IN BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA, I GOT ON A PLANE. TWENTY-TWO HOURS AFTER THAT, I STEPPED OUT OF THE AIRPORT ON ANOTHER CONTINENT IN ANOTHER HEMISPHERE FACING UNFAMILIAR TERRITORY IN EVERY SENSE OF THE PHRASE. THERE WERE SOME IMMEDIATE CHALLENGES. FOR ONE DUE TO A CRUEL TWIST OF FATE AND EARTH’S TILT I HAVE AN EXTRA WINTER IN MY LIFE. [ LAUGHTER ] FOR ANOTHER, I SOMEHOW HAD THE HARDEST TIME EXPLAINING TO THE PEOPLE AT THE HOTEL WHERE I INITIALLY LIVED THAT THERE WERE NO SPATULAS OR TONGS IN MY KITCHENETTE. APPARENTLY THEY DO NOT USE THE WORDS “KITCHEN UTENSILS” IN AUSTRALIA? TURNS OUT THE RIGHT WORD WAS “CUTLERY.” THERE WERE GREATER AND MUCH MORE SIGNIFICANT CHALLENGES AS WELL. IT WAS A TIME OF UNCERTAINTY, CONFUSION, AND SELF-DOUBT, BUT ALSO ONE OF EXCITEMENT AND GROWTH. AND THOUGH THE OUTCOME OF MY POSTDOC WAS NOT WHAT I HAD ORIGINALLY EXPECTED, I DO KNOW THAT I WOULD NOT BE HERE RIGHT NOW WITHOUT THAT EXPERIENCE AND THE MENTOR A WORLD AWAY WITH WHOM I WAS FORTUNATE ENOUGH TO WORK. NOW, I DON’T MENTION ALL OF THIS TO ILLUSTRATE THAT I WAS PARTICULARLY BRAVE ABOUT THINGS BACK THEN. AND I DON’T MENTION IT TO ENCOURAGE YOU TO GO GLOBETROTTING TO PARTS UNKNOWN WHERE YOU MAY WELL FIND YOURSELF COOKING WITH YOUR HANDS IN A STRANGE HOTEL. I MENTION IT BECAUSE TAKING RISKS AND NAVIGATING THE UNKNOWN CAN BENEFIT US IN WAYS WE CAN NEVER IMAGINE. I MENTION IT TO REINFORCE THE IDEA THAT I’M STILL ON MY JOURNEY — JUST LIKE EVERYONE ON THIS STAGE IN STILL ON THEIRS, AND JUST LIKE THE FRIENDS AND FACULTY AND FAMILY WHO ARE HERE WITH YOU TODAY AND WHO HAVE OFFERED YOU THEIR INVALUABLE SUPPORT AND ENCOURAGEMENT AND MENTORSHIP AR ON THEIRS. WE ARE ALL CONTINUALLY SHAPING OUR OWN STORIES. YOU, AS HOLDERS OF ADVANCED DEGREES FROM THIS UNIVERSITY, ARE UNIQUELY EQUIPPED TO SHAPE YOUR OWN PATH FORWARD. TO STEP OUT INTO NEW FIELDS, TO EVEN CREATE NEW FIELDS, AND LAUNCH INTO DIRECTIONS THAT WILL CARRY YOU FARTHER THAN ANY TRANS-PACIFIC FLIGHT. YOU HAVE UNSURPASSED DEPTH OF KNOWLEDGE IN YOUR SPECIALITY; YOU ARE EXPERT IN ITS LATEST METHODS. WE KNOW FROM OUR OWN RESEARCH THAT YOU WILL BRING YOUR TRAINING AND EXPERTISE TO BEAR UPON AN EXPANDED SET OF CAREER PATHWAYS COMPARED TO THOSE WHO CAME A GENERATION BEFORE YOU. YOUR PATHS AND WHAT YOU WILL ACCOMPLISHED ARE UNDETERMINED; THERE ARE SO MANY DIFFERENT WAY IN WHICH YOUR WORK AND YOUR SCHOLARSHIP CAN ULTIMATELY IMPACT THE PUBLIC GOOD. WHEN THE RACKHAM GRADUATE SCHOOL WAS CREATED, ONE OF ITS AIMS WAS TO BRING INDIVIDUALS FROM DIFFERENT DISCIPLINES TOGETHER. AS WE ARE TODAY. IN FACT, IT WAS THE SPECIFIC REASON THAT THE RACKHAM BUILDING WAS CONSTRUCTED AS A HOME FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS. IT WAS UNDERSTOOD THAT THERE WAS MUCH TO BE LEARNED BY REACHING OUT ACROSS DISCIPLINES, FROM EXPOSING YOURSELF TO THE UNFAMILIAR, AND FROM OPENING YOURSELF TO POSSIBILITY. AS YOU GO OUT FROM MICHIGAN TODAY, I ENCOURAGE YOU TO CONTINUE TO EMBRACE THOSE IDEAS, TO CARRY THEM FORWARD, AND TO CONTINUALLY FIND INSPIRATION IN THE UNEXPECTED. BECAUSE, REALLY, THAT INSPIRATION IS WHAT CAN CHANGE YOUR LIFE. CONGRATULATIONS! [ APPLAUSE ] MR. PRESIDENT, I NOW HAVE THE HONOR, ON BEHALF OF THE FACULTIES OF THE. UNIVERSITY AND THE HORACE H. RACKHAM SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES TO PRESENT CANDIDATES TO YOU FOR THE VARIOUS MASTER’S AND CERTIFICATE DEGREES AND TO RECOMMEND THEM FOR THE DEGREES NAMED. WILL THE CANDIDATES FOR THE DEGREES PLEASE RISE AND REMAIN STANDING AS THEIR DEGREES ARE NAMED. MASTER OF ARTS. [ APPLAUSE ] MASTER OF DESIGN. [ APPLAUSE ] MASTER OF FINE ARTS. [ APPLAUSE ] MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE. [ APPLAUSE ] MASTER OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. [ APPLAUSE ] MASTER OF PUBLIC POLICY. [ APPLAUSE ] MASTER OF SCIENCE. [ APPLAUSE ] MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ENGINEERING. [ APPLAUSE ] MASTER OF URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING. [ APPLAUSE ] AND CERTIFICATE OF GRADUATE STUDIES.>>PRESIDENT SCHLISSEL: ON BEHALF OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, I CONGRATULATE YOU ON YOUR GRADUATION. [ CHEERS AND APPLAUSE ] IT IS NOW OUR PLEASURE TO INVITE MASTER’S DEGREE CANDIDATES TO COME FORWARD AND BE GREETED. [ CHEERS AND APPLAUSE ]>>PRESIDENT SCHLISSEL: WE RECOGNIZE INDIVIDUALLY THE RECIPIENTS OF DOCTORAL DEGREES AWARDED BY THE UNIVERSITY. [ CHEERS AND APPLAUSE ] I INVITE YOU TO NOTICE THE VARIOUS DISCIPLINES REPRESENTED AS THE DEGREE RECIPIENTS ARE INTRODUCED. YOU WILL RECEIVE A REMARKABLE INSIGHT INTO THE DIVERSITY AND BREADTH OF THE INTELLECTUAL AND CREATIVE MISSION CARRIED FORTH HERE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN. BY THE AUTHORITY OF THE STATE OF MICHIGAN, VESTED IN THE REGENTS OF THIS UNIVERSITY, AND BY THEM DELEGATED TO ME, WE SHALL NOW CONFER THE DEGREES WHICH HAVE BEEN RECOMMENDED BY THE FACULTIES. MICHAEL SOLOMON, DEAN OF THE HORACE H. RACKHAM. SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND VICE PROVOST FOR ACADEMIC AFFAIRS-GRADUATE STUDIES WILL PRESIDE.>>DEAN SOLOMON: THE CANDIDATES FOR THE DOCTORAL DEGREES OF THE HORACE H. RACKHAM SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES WILL PLEASE RISE WHEN THEIR DEGREE IS CALLED AND REMAIN STANDING. DOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTS. [ APPLAUSE ] DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY. [ APPLAUSE ] MR. PRESIDENT ON BEHALF OF THE EXECUTIVE BOARD OF THE HORACE H. RACKHAM SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES TO PRESENT THESE CANDIDATES TO YOU AND TO RECOMMEND THEM FOR THE DEGREES NAMED.>>PRESIDENT SCHLISSEL: I CONFER UPON EACH OF YOU THE DEGREE FOR WHICH YOU HAVE BEEN NOMINATED, ADMITTING YOU TO ITS RIGHTS, HONORS, AND PRIVILEGES, AND CHARGING YOU WITH ITS RESPONSIBILITIES. IN CONSIDERATION OF THOSE SEATED BEHIND YOU, PLEASE RETURN TO YOUR SEATS UNTIL YOU ARE CONDUCTED TO THE PLATFORM WHERE YOU WILL BE HOODED AND INDIVIDUALLY INTRODUCED. [ APPLAUSE ]>>DEAN SOLOMON: DOCTORAL DEGREES ARE THE HIGHEST AWARDED BY THE UNIVERSITY. WE COME NOW TO THE HOODING OF DOCTORAL DEGREE RECIPIENTS, RECOGNIZING THEM INDIVIDUALLY. THE RITUAL OF RECEIVING THE DOCTORAL HOOD IS PART OF A HISTORICAL TRADITION THAT BEGAN WITH THE EARLIEST FOUNDATIONS OF EUROPEAN UNIVERSITIES. HOODING HAS BEEN A CENTRAL FEATURE OF COMMENCEMENTS SINCE THE 12TH CENTURY. WHEN POPES, KINGS, OR EMPERORS AUTHORIZED THE CONFERRAL OF THE DOCTORAL HOOD, THEY WERE CERTIFYING THAT THE RECIPIENTS WERE MASTER TEACHERS WHO HAD EARNED IUS UBIQUE DOCENDI, THE RIGHT TO TEACH ANYWHERE. EACH DOCTORAL GRADUATE HAS UNDERTAKEN ORIGINAL SCHOLARSHIP IN THE COMPLETION OF A DISSERTATION, GUIDED BY A FACULTY MEMBER WHO CHAIRED THE STUDENT’S DISSERTATION COMMITTEE. MANY OF THESE DISSERTATION CHAIRS ARE WITH US TODAY AND WILL BE PERSONALLY HOODING THEIR STUDENTS, WELCOMING THEM TO THE COMMUNITY OF SCHOLARS. BEFORE THEIR NAMES ARE CALLED, EACH IS DRAPED WITH A HOOD, COMPLETING THEIR DOCTORAL ACADEMIC REGALIA. THE COLORS ON THE HOODS IDENTIFY, FIRST, THE UNIVERSITY ATTENDED AND, SECOND, THE ACADEMIC FIELD OF STUDY. THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN’S COLORS, MAIZE AND AZURE BLUE, CAN BE SEEN ON THE LINING OF THE HOODS THE DOCTORAL CANDIDATES WILL WEAR TODAY. THE BORDER COLOR WHICH IS THE FIELD OF STUDY CAN BE IDENTIFIED IN THE LIST OF “ACADEMIC COLORS” IN THE PROGRAM. [ APPLAUSE ]>>PRESIDENT SCHLISSEL: WILL ALL OF THE GRADUATES AND CANDIDATES PRESENTED TODAY PLEASE RISE. [ CHEERS AND APPLAUSE ] WILL THE REGENTS, DEANS AND OFFICERS, THE FACULTY, AND ALL OTHERS ON THE PLATFORM PLEASE RISE. [ APPLAUSE ] WILL ALL OF THE FAMILY MEMBERS AND INVITED GUESTS WHO SHARE IN THE RECOGNITION OF THESE CANDIDATES PRESENTED TODAY PLEASE RISE. [ CHEERS AND APPLAUSE ] I NOW WELCOME OUR GRADUATES TO THE COMMUNITY OF SCHOLARS. WE LOOK FORWARD TO BENEFITING FROM THE CONTRIBUTIONS YOUR EDUCATION HAS PREPARED YOU TO MAKE IN OUR WORLD. CONGRATULATIONS! [ CHEERS AND APPLAUSE ] I INVITE YOU ALL TO BE SEATED FOR A MOMENT. IT IS NOW MY PLEASURE TO INTRODUCE ELLEN AGRESS, CHAIR OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN. [ APPLAUSE ]>>ELLEN AGRESS: OH, HEY, HEY. CONGRATULATIONS FROM THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION TO ALL OF YOU NEW ALUMNI. I KNOW YOU’RE ALL ANXIOUS TO GO CELEBRATE YOUR ACHIEVEMENTS, BU HANG ON FOR A MINUTE AND I PROMISE THAT WILL JUST TAKE A MINUTE, I PROMISE. I’VE SAVED THE BEST FOR LAST. YOU’VE BEEN CONGRATULATED AND PRAISED BY YOUR FAMILIES, YOUR FRIENDS AND THE ILLUSTRIOUS ACADEMICS AND HONOREES ON THIS PLATFORM. BUT NOW THAT YOU HAVE RECEIVED YOUR DEGREES, I CAN PRESENT YOU WITH WHAT I KNOW YOU WILL THINK IS THE BEST REWARD OF ALL — A ONE YEAR, ABSOLUTELY FREE, NO STRINGS ATTACHED MEMBERSHIP IN THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN ALUMNI ASSOCIATION! NOW WHAT COULD BE BETTER THAN THAT, RIGHT? LET’S HEAR IT! ALL RIGHT! SERIOUSLY, THOUGH — I HOPE YOU COME TO SEE YOUR MEMBERSHIP IN THE ASSOCIATION AS A WAY TO STAY CONNECTED TO THIS GREAT UNIVERSITY AND THE FRIENDS YOU HAVE MADE HERE. OUR GOAL IS TO PROVIDE YOU WITH WAYS TO KEEP THOSE CONNECTIONS AND MAKE NEW ONES, AS WELL AS TO SUPPORT YOUR FUTURE ENDEAVORS AND INTERESTS AND TO HELP YOU MAXIMIZE YOUR PROFESSIONAL AND PERSONAL SUCCESS. I KNOW YOU WILL CONTINUE MICHIGAN’S PROUD ACHIEVEMENTS AND TRADITIONS, JUST AS 200 YEARS’ WORTH OF PAST GRADUATES HAVE ALREADY DONE. SO CONGRATULATIONS, WELCOME TO THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION AND GO BLUE! [ CHEERS AND APPLAUSE ]>>CHAIR MARSH: THANK YOU. FOLLOWING THE SINGING OF THE YELLOW AND BLUE, THE AUDIENCE IS REQUESTED TO REMAIN AT THEIR SEATS UNTIL THE RECESSIONAL MARCH OF THE PLATFORM HAS BEEN COMPLETED. THEN YOU ARE CORDIALLY INVITED TO A RECEPTION HONORING OUR GRADUATES, THEIR FAMILIES, AND FRIENDS. THE RECEPTION WILL BE OUTSIDE ON INGALLS MALL. WE LOOK FORWARD TO SEEING YOU THERE. NOW, PLEASE JOIN US IN SINGING THE UNIVERSITY’S ALMA MATER. THE YELLOW AND BLUE. ♪ SING TO THE COLORS THAT FLOAT IN THE LIGHT ♪ ♪ HURRAH FOR THE YELLOW AND BLUE ♪ ♪ YELLOW THE STARS AS THEY RIDE THRO’ THE NIGHT ♪ ♪ AND REEL IN A ROLLICKING CREW ♪ ♪ YELLOW THE FIELDS WHERE RIPENS THE GRAIN,♪ ♪ AND YELLOW THE MOON ON THE HARVEST WAIN ♪ ♪ HAIL! ♪ ♪ HAIL TO THE COLORS THAT FLOAT IN THE LIGHT ♪ ♪ HURRAH FOR THE YELLOW AND BLUE! ♪ [ CHEERS AND APPLAUSE ]