Harvard | Wikipedia audio article

Harvard | Wikipedia audio article

August 14, 2019 0 By Stanley Isaacs


Harvard University is a private Ivy League
research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and
about 15,250 post graduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor,
clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States’ oldest institution of higher learning,
and its history, influence, and wealth have made it one of the world’s most prestigious
universities.The Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never
formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College primarily trained Congregational
and Unitarian clergy. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the
18th century, and by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment
among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot’s long
tenure (1869–1909) transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a
modern research university; Harvard was a founding member of the Association of American
Universities in 1900.A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate
curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard’s land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and
began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate
college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College.
The university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe
Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its
209-acre (85 ha) main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge, approximately 3
miles (5 km) northwest of Boston; the business school and athletics facilities, including
Harvard Stadium, are located across the Charles River in the Allston neighborhood of Boston
and the medical, dental, and public health schools are in the Longwood Medical Area.
Harvard’s endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution.
Harvard is a large, highly residential research university. The nominal cost of attendance
is high, but the university’s large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid
packages. The Harvard Library is the world’s largest academic and private library system,
comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items. The University is cited
as one of the world’s top tertiary institutions by various organizations.Harvard’s alumni
include eight U.S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires,
359 Rhodes Scholars, and 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18
Fields Medalists, and 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty,
or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48
Pulitzer Prizes, and 108 Olympic medals (46 gold, 41 silver and 21 bronze).==History=====
Colonial===Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of
the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
In 1638, it acquired British North America’s first known printing press. In 1639, it was
named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University
of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar’s library of some 400 volumes.
The charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650.
A 1643 publication gave the school’s purpose as “to advance learning and perpetuate it
to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present
ministers shall lie in the dust”; in its early years trained many Puritan ministers.
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model‍—‌many leaders in the
colony had attended the University of Cambridge‍—‌but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It
was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on
to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches.The leading Boston divine
Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the
first president who was not also a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism
and toward intellectual independence.===19th century===Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment
ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers,
putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist
parties. When the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president
of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year later, in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements.
Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, and the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed
to the presidency of Harvard two years later, which signaled the changing of the tide from
the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas
(defined by traditionalists as Unitarian ideas).In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis
Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz’s
approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans’ “participation in the Divine Nature”
and the possibility of understanding “intellectual existences”. Agassiz’s perspective on science
combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the “divine
plan” in all phenomena. When it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of
shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was
in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers
Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the
time. The popularity of Agassiz’s efforts to “soar with Plato” probably also derived
from other writings to which Harvard students were exposed, including Platonic treatises
by Ralph Cudworth, John Norris and, in a Romantic vein, Samuel Taylor Coleridge. The library
records at Harvard reveal that the writings of Plato and his early modern and Romantic
followers were almost as regularly read during the 19th century as those of the “official
philosophy” of the more empirical and more deistic Scottish school.Charles W. Eliot,
president 1869–1909, eliminated the favored position of Christianity from the curriculum
while opening it to student self-direction. While Eliot was the most crucial figure in
the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated not by a desire to secularize
education, but by Transcendentalist Unitarian convictions. Derived from William Ellery Channing
and Ralph Waldo Emerson, these convictions were focused on the dignity and worth of human
nature, the right and ability of each person to perceive truth, and the indwelling God
in each person.===20th century===During the 20th century, Harvard’s international
reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the university’s
scope. Rapid enrollment growth continued as new graduate schools were begun and the undergraduate
College expanded. Radcliffe College, established in 1879 as sister school of Harvard College,
became one of the most prominent schools for women in the United States. Harvard became
a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900.In the early 20th century,
the student body was predominantly “old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians,
Congregationalists, and Presbyterians”—a group later called “WASPs” (White Anglo-Saxon
Protestants). In 1923 a proposal by president A. Lawrence Lowell that Jews be limited to
15% of undergraduates was rejected, but Lowell did ban blacks from living in Harvard Yard;
Lowell believed that “forcing” blacks and whites to live together “would increase a
prejudice that … is most unfortunate and probably growing.” But by the 1970s, Harvard
was much more diversified.James Bryant Conant (president, 1933–1953) reinvigorated creative
scholarship to guarantee its preeminence among research institutions. He saw higher education
as a vehicle of opportunity for the talented rather than an entitlement for the wealthy,
so Conant devised programs to identify, recruit, and support talented youth. In 1943, he asked
the faculty make a definitive statement about what general education ought to be, at the
secondary as well as the college level. The resulting Report, published in 1945, was one
of the most influential manifestos in the history of American education in the 20th
century.In 1945–1960 admissions policies were opened up to bring in students from a
more diverse applicant pool. No longer drawing mostly from rich alumni of select New England
prep schools, the undergraduate college was now open to striving middle class students
from public schools; many more Jews and Catholics were admitted, but few blacks, Hispanics or
Asians.Harvard graduate schools began admitting women in small numbers in the late 19th century,
and during World War II, students at Radcliffe
College (which since 1879 had been paying Harvard professors to repeat their lectures
for women students) began attending Harvard classes alongside men, The first class of
women was admitted to Harvard Medical School in 1945.
Since the 1970s Harvard has been responsible for essentially all aspects of admission,
instruction, and undergraduate life for women, and Radcliffe was formally merged into Harvard
in 1999.===21st century===
Drew Gilpin Faust, previously the dean of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study,
became Harvard’s president on July 1, 2007. In February 2018, Lawrence Seldon Bacow was
designated to take office as its 29th president on July 1, 2018.==Campuses=====Cambridge===Harvard’s 209-acre (85 ha) main campus is
centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge, about 3 miles (5 km) west-northwest of downtown
Boston, and extends into the surrounding Harvard Square neighborhood. Harvard Yard itself contains
the central administrative offices and main libraries of the university, academic buildings
including Sever Hall and University Hall, Memorial Church, and the majority of the freshman
dormitories. Sophomore, junior, and senior undergraduates live in twelve residential
Houses, nine of which are south of Harvard Yard along or near the Charles River. The
other three are located in a residential neighborhood half a mile northwest of the Yard at the Quadrangle
(commonly referred to as the Quad), which formerly housed Radcliffe College students
until Radcliffe merged its residential system with Harvard. Each residential house contains
rooms for undergraduates, House masters, and resident tutors, as well as a dining hall
and library. The facilities were made possible by a gift from Yale University alumnus Edward
Harkness.Radcliffe Yard, formerly the center of the campus of Radcliffe College and now
home of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard, is adjacent to the Graduate
School of Education and the Cambridge Common. Between 2014 and 2016, Harvard University
reported crime statistics for its main Cambridge campus that included 141 forcible sex offenses,
33 robberies, 46 aggravated assaults, 151 burglaries, and 32 cases of motor vehicle
theft.Harvard also has commercial real estate holdings in Cambridge and Allston, on which
it pays property taxes. This includes the Allston Doubletree Hotel, The Inn at Harvard,
and the Harvard Square Hotel.===Allston===The Harvard Business School and many of the
university’s athletics facilities, including Harvard Stadium, are located on a 358-acre
(145 ha) campus in Allston, a Boston neighborhood across the Charles River from the Cambridge
campus. The John W. Weeks Bridge, a pedestrian bridge over the Charles River, connects the
two campuses. Intending a major expansion, Harvard now owns
more land in Allston than it does in Cambridge. A ten-year plan calls for 1.4 million square
feet (130,000 square meters) of new construction and 500,000 square feet (50,000 square meters)
of renovations, including new and renovated buildings at Harvard Business School; a hotel
and conference center; a multipurpose institutional building; renovations to graduate student
housing and to Harvard Stadium; new athletic facilities; new laboratories and classrooms
for the John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences; expansion of the Harvard
Education Portal; and a district energy facility.===Longwood===Further south, the Harvard Medical School,
Harvard School of Dental Medicine, and the Harvard School of Public Health are located
on a 21-acre (8.5 ha) campus in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area about 3.3 miles
(5.3 km) south of the Cambridge campus, and the same distance southwest of downtown Boston.
The Arnold Arboretum, in the Jamaica Plain neighborhood of Boston, is also owned and
operated by Harvard.===Other===
Harvard also owns and operates the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, in Washington,
D.C.; the Harvard Forest in Petersham, Massachusetts; the Concord Field Station in Estabrook Woods
in Concord, Massachusetts and the Villa I Tatti research center in Florence, Italy.
Harvard also operates the Harvard Shanghai Center in China.==Organization and administration=====Governance===Harvard is governed by a combination of its
Board of Overseers and the President and Fellows of Harvard College (also known as the Harvard
Corporation), which in turn appoints the President of Harvard University. There are 16,000 staff
and faculty, including 2,400 professors, lecturers, and
instructors teaching 7,200 undergraduates and 14,000 graduate students.The Faculty of
Arts and Sciences has primary responsibility for instruction in Harvard College, Graduate
School of Arts and Sciences, and the Harvard Division of Continuing Education, which includes
Harvard Summer School and Harvard Extension School. There are ten other graduate and professional
school faculties, in addition to the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study.Joint programs
with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology include the Harvard-MIT Division of Health
Sciences and Technology, the Broad Institute, The Observatory of Economic Complexity, and
edX.===Endowment===Harvard has the largest university endowment
in the world. In terms of endowment per student, it ranks third in the U.S., after Princeton
and Yale. As of September 2011, it had nearly regained the loss suffered during the 2008
recession. It was worth $32 billion in 2011, up from $28 billion in September 2010 and
$26 billion in 2009. It suffered about 30% loss in 2008–2009. In December 2008, Harvard
announced that its endowment had lost 22% (approximately $8 billion) from July to October
2008, necessitating budget cuts. Later reports suggest the loss was actually more than double
that figure, a reduction of nearly 50% of its endowment in the first four months alone.
Forbes in March 2009 estimated the loss to be in the range of $12 billion. One of the
most visible results of Harvard’s attempt to re-balance its budget was their halting
of construction of the $1.2 billion Allston Science Complex that had been scheduled to
be completed by 2011, resulting in protests from local residents. As of 2012, Harvard
University had a total financial aid reserve of $159 million for students, and a Pell Grant
reserve of $4.093 million available for disbursement.====Divestment====
Since the 1970s, several campaigns have sought to divest Harvard’s endowment from holdings
the campaigns opposed, including investments in apartheid South Africa, the tobacco industry,
Sudan during the Darfur genocide, and the fossil fuel industry.During the divestment
from South Africa movement in the late 1980s, student activists erected a symbolic “shantytown”
on Harvard Yard and blockaded a speech given by South African Vice Consul Duke Kent-Brown.
The Harvard Management Company repeatedly refused to divest, stating that “operating
expenses must not be subject to financially unrealistic strictures or carping by the unsophisticated
or by special interest groups.” However, the university did eventually reduce its South
African holdings by $230 million (out of $400 million) in response to the pressure.==Academics=====
Admission===Undergraduate admission to Harvard is characterized
by the Carnegie Foundation as “more selective, lower transfer-in”. Harvard College accepted
5.2% of applicants for the class of 2021, a record low and the second lowest acceptance
rate among all national universities. Harvard College ended its early admissions program
in 2007 as the program was believed to disadvantage low-income and under-represented minority
applicants applying to selective universities, but for the class of 2016, an early action
program was reintroduced.The freshman class that entered in the fall of 2017 was the first
to be predominantly (50.8%) nonwhite.Harvard’s undergraduate admission policies on preference
for children of alumni has been criticized as favoring white, wealthy candidates.
Admission is based on academic prowess, extracurricular activities and “personality” (judged subjectively
by admissions officers who have not met the applicants), and it is alleged that this approach
discriminates against Asians.===Teaching and learning===Harvard is a large, highly residential research
university. The university has been accredited by the New England Association of Schools
and Colleges since 1929. The university offers 46 undergraduate concentrations (majors),
134 graduate degrees, and 32 professional degrees. For the 2008–2009 academic year,
Harvard granted 1,664 baccalaureate degrees, 400 master’s degrees, 512 doctoral degrees,
and 4,460 professional degrees.The four-year, full-time undergraduate program comprises
a minority of enrollments at the university and emphasizes instruction with an “arts and
sciences focus”. Between 1978 and 2008, entering students were required to complete a core
curriculum of seven classes outside of their concentration. Since 2008, undergraduate students
have been required to complete courses in eight General Education categories: Aesthetic
and Interpretive Understanding, Culture and Belief, Empirical and Mathematical Reasoning,
Ethical Reasoning, Science of Living Systems, Science of the Physical Universe, Societies
of the World, and United States in the World. Harvard offers a comprehensive doctoral graduate
program, and undergraduate degrees. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching,
The New York Times, and some students have criticized Harvard for its reliance on teaching
fellows for some aspects of undergraduate education; they consider this to adversely
affect the quality of education.Harvard’s academic programs operate on a semester calendar
beginning in early September and ending in mid-May. Undergraduates typically take four
half-courses per term and must maintain a four-course rate average to be considered
full-time. In many concentrations, students can elect to pursue a basic program or an
honors-eligible program requiring a senior thesis and/or advanced course work. Students
graduating in the top 4–5% of the class are awarded degrees summa cum laude, students
in the next 15% of the class are awarded magna cum laude, and the next 30% of the class are
awarded cum laude. Harvard has chapters of academic honor societies such as Phi Beta
Kappa and various committees and departments also award several hundred named prizes annually.
Harvard, along with other universities, has been accused of grade inflation, although
there is evidence that the quality of the student body and its motivation have also
increased. Harvard College reduced the number of students who receive Latin honors from
90% in 2004 to 60% in 2005. Moreover, the honors of “John Harvard Scholar” and “Harvard
College Scholar” would now be given only to the top 5 percent and the next 5 percent of
each class.University policy is to expel students engaging in academic dishonesty to discourage
a “culture of cheating.” In 2012, dozens of students were expelled
for cheating after an investigation of more than 120 students. In 2013, there was a report
that as many as 42% of incoming freshmen had cheated on homework prior to entering the
university, and these incidents have prompted the university to consider adopting an honor
code.For the 2012–2013 school year, annual tuition was $38,000, with a total cost of
attendance of $57,000. Beginning in 2007, families with incomes below $60,000 pay nothing
for their children to attend, including room and board. Families with incomes between $60,000
to $80,000 pay only a few thousand dollars per year, and families earning between $120,000
and $180,000 pay no more than 10% of their annual incomes. In 2009, Harvard offered grants
totaling $414 million; $340 million came from institutional funds, $35 million from federal
support, and $39 million from other outside support. Grants total 88% of Harvard’s aid
for undergraduate students, with aid also provided by loans (8%) and work-study (4%).
Tuition only covers 6.4% of Harvard’s operating costs.===Research===
Harvard is a founding member of the Association of American Universities and remains a research
university with “very high” research activity and a “comprehensive” doctoral program across
the arts, sciences, engineering, and medicine. Research and development expenditures in 2011
totaled $650 million, 27th among American universities.===Libraries and museums===The Harvard University Library system is centered
in Widener Library in Harvard Yard and comprises nearly 80 individual libraries holding over
18 million volumes. According to the American Library Association, this makes it the largest
academic library in the United States, and one of the largest in the world.
Houghton Library, the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women
in America, and the Harvard University Archives consist principally of rare and unique materials.
America’s oldest collection of maps, gazetteers, and atlases both old and new is stored in
Pusey Library and open to the public. The largest collection of East-Asian language
material outside of East Asia is held in the Harvard-Yenching Library.
The Harvard Art Museums comprise three museums. The Arthur M. Sackler Museum includes collections
of ancient, Asian, Islamic and later Indian art, the Busch-Reisinger Museum, formerly
the Germanic Museum, covers central and northern European art, and the Fogg Museum of Art,
covers Western art from the Middle Ages to the present emphasizing Italian early Renaissance,
British pre-Raphaelite, and 19th-century French art. The Harvard Museum of Natural History
includes the Harvard Mineralogical Museum, Harvard University Herbaria featuring the
Blaschka Glass Flowers exhibit, and the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Other museums include
the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, designed by Le Corbusier, housing the film
archive, the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, specializing in the cultural
history and civilizations of the Western Hemisphere, and the Semitic Museum featuring artifacts
from excavations in the Middle East.===University rankings===
Among overall rankings, the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) has ranked Harvard
as the world’s best university every year since it was first released. When QS and Times
Higher Education (THE) were published in partnership as the THE-QS World University Rankings during
2004–2009, Harvard had held the top spot every year, so has it on THE World Reputation
Rankings ever since it was released in 2011.Regarding rankings of specific indicators, Harvard topped
both University Ranking by Academic Performance 2015–2016 and Mines ParisTech: Professional
Ranking of World Universities (2011), which measured universities’ numbers of alumni holding
CEO positions in Fortune Global 500 companies. According to the 2016 poll done by The Princeton
Review, Harvard is the second most commonly named “dream college” in the United States,
both for students and parents. College ROI Report: Best Value Colleges by PayScale puts
Harvard 22nd nationwide in the most recent 2016 edition.==Student life=====
Student body===In the last six years, Harvard’s student population
ranged from 19,000 to 21,000, across all programs. Harvard enrolled 6,655 students in undergraduate
programs, and over 14,000 students in graduate and professional programs. The undergraduate
population is 51% female, while the graduate population is 48% female.The Harvard Undergraduate
Council and Harvard Graduate Council are the chief organs of student government.===Athletics===The Harvard Crimson competes in 42 intercollegiate
sports in the NCAA Division I Ivy League. Harvard has an intense athletic rivalry with
Yale University culminating in The Game, although the Harvard–Yale Regatta predates the football
game. This rivalry is put aside every two years when the Harvard and Yale Track and
Field teams come together to compete against a combined Oxford University and Cambridge
University team, a competition that is the oldest continuous international amateur competition
in the world.Harvard’s athletic rivalry with Yale is intense in every sport in which they
meet, coming to a climax each fall in the annual football meeting, which dates back
to 1875 and is usually called simply “The Game”. While Harvard’s football team is no
longer one of the country’s best as it often was a century ago during football’s early
days (it won the Rose Bowl in 1920), both it and Yale have influenced the way the game
is played. In 1903, Harvard Stadium introduced a new era into football with the first-ever
permanent reinforced concrete stadium of its kind in the country. The stadium’s structure
actually played a role in the evolution of the college game. Seeking to reduce the alarming
number of deaths and serious injuries in the sport, Walter Camp (former captain of the
Yale football team), suggested widening the field to open up the game. But the stadium
was too narrow to accommodate a wider playing surface. So, other steps had to be taken.
Camp would instead support revolutionary new rules for the 1906 season. These included
legalizing the forward pass, perhaps the most significant rule change in the sport’s history. Harvard has several athletic facilities, such
as the Lavietes Pavilion, a multi-purpose arena and home to the Harvard basketball teams.
The Malkin Athletic Center, known as the “MAC”, serves both as the university’s primary recreation
facility and as a satellite location for several varsity sports. The five-story building includes
two cardio rooms, an Olympic-size swimming pool, a smaller pool for aquaerobics and other
activities, a mezzanine, where all types of classes are held, an indoor cycling studio,
three weight rooms, and a three-court gym floor to play basketball. The MAC offers personal
trainers and specialty classes. It is home to Harvard volleyball, fencing and wrestling. Weld Boathouse and Newell Boathouse house
the women’s and men’s rowing teams, respectively. The men’s crew also uses the Red Top complex
in Ledyard, Connecticut, as their training camp for the annual Harvard–Yale Regatta.
The Bright Hockey Center hosts the Harvard hockey teams, and the Murr Center serves both
as a home for Harvard’s squash and tennis teams as well as a strength and conditioning
center for all athletic sports. As of 2013, there were 42 Division I intercollegiate
varsity sports teams for women and men at Harvard, more than at any other NCAA Division
I college in the country. As with other Ivy League universities, Harvard does not offer
athletic scholarships. Older than The Game by 23 years, the Harvard–Yale
Regatta was the original source of the athletic rivalry between the two schools. It is held
annually in June on the Thames River in eastern Connecticut. The Harvard crew is typically
considered to be one of the top teams in the country in rowing. Today, Harvard fields top
teams in several other sports, such as the Harvard Crimson men’s ice hockey team (with
a strong rivalry against Cornell), squash, and even recently won NCAA titles in Men’s
and Women’s Fencing. Harvard also won the Intercollegiate Sailing Association National
Championships in 2003. Harvard’s men’s ice hockey team won the school’s
first NCAA Championship in any team sport in 1989. Harvard was also the first Ivy League
institution to win a NCAA championship title in a women’s sport when its women’s lacrosse
team won the NCAA Championship in 1990. Harvard Undergraduate Television has footage
from historical games and athletic events including the 2005 pep-rally before the Harvard-Yale
Game. The school color is crimson, which is also
the name of the Harvard sports teams and the daily newspaper, The Harvard Crimson. The
color was unofficially adopted (in preference to magenta) by an 1875 vote of the student
body, although the association with some form of red can be traced back to 1858, when Charles
William Eliot, a young graduate student who would later become Harvard’s 21st and longest-serving
president (1869–1909), bought red bandanas for his crew so they could more easily be
distinguished by spectators at a regatta.===Song===
Harvard has several fight songs, the most played of which, especially at football, are
“Ten Thousand Men of Harvard” and “Harvardiana.” While “Fair Harvard” is actually the alma
mater, “Ten Thousand Men” is better known outside the university. The Harvard University
Band performs these fight songs, and other cheers at football and hockey games. These
were parodied by Harvard alumnus Tom Lehrer in his song “Fight Fiercely, Harvard,” which
he composed while an undergraduate.==Notable people=====
Alumni======
Faculty===Harvard’s faculty includes scholars such as
biologist E. O. Wilson, psychologist Steven Pinker, physicists Lisa Randall and Roy Glauber,
chemists Elias Corey, Dudley R. Herschbach and George M. Whitesides, computer scientists
Michael O. Rabin and Leslie Valiant, Shakespeare scholar Stephen Greenblatt, writer Louis Menand,
critic Helen Vendler, historians Henry Louis Gates, Jr. and Niall Ferguson, economists
Amartya Sen, N. Gregory Mankiw, Robert Barro, Stephen A. Marglin, Don M. Wilson III and
Martin Feldstein, political philosophers Harvey Mansfield, Baroness Shirley Williams and Michael
Sandel, Fields Medalist mathematician Shing-Tung Yau, political scientists Robert Putnam, Joseph
Nye, and Stanley Hoffmann, scholar/composers Robert Levin and Bernard Rands, astrophysicist
Alyssa A. Goodman, and legal scholars Alan Dershowitz and Lawrence Lessig.
Past faculty members include Stephen Jay Gould, Robert Nozick, Stephan Thernstrom, Sanford
J. Ungar, Michael Walzer, and Cornel West.==Literature and popular culture==Harvard’s legacy as a leading research and
educational institution has a significant impact in both academy and popular culture.
Furthermore, the perception of Harvard as a center of either elite achievement, or elitist
privilege, has made it a frequent literary and cinematic backdrop. “In the grammar of
film, Harvard has come to mean both tradition, and a certain amount of stuffiness,” film
critic Paul Sherman has said.===Literature===
William Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury (1929) and Absalom! Absalom! (1936) both depict
Harvard student life. Of Time and the River (1935), Thomas Wolfe’s
fictionalized autobiography, includes his alter ego’s student days at Harvard.
The Late George Apley (1937; winner of the Pulitzer Prize), by John P. Marquand, parodies
Harvard men at the opening of the 20th century. The Second Happiest Day (1953), by John P.
Marquand, Jr., depicts the Harvard of the World War II generation.===Film===
Harvard’s policy since 1970 has been to permit filming on its property only rarely, so most
scenes set at Harvard (especially indoor shots, but excepting aerial footage and shots of
public areas such as Harvard Square) are in fact shot elsewhere.
Erich Segal’s Love Story (1970), which concerns a romance between a wealthy hockey player
(Ryan O’Neal) and a brilliant Radcliffe student of modest means (Ali MacGraw), is screened
annually for incoming freshmen. The Paper Chase (1973)==See also