Faculty Colloquium: Dr. Qingyan Chen

Faculty Colloquium: Dr. Qingyan Chen

August 15, 2019 0 By Stanley Isaacs


So good afternoon everyone, I have the
pleasure of being here and introduce for his presentation associated with
the celebration of faculty careers. This whole thing started as associated
with the strategic plan for the College of Engineering and that was called the
faculty in fact 2020 component of that, and it focused on professional development
throughout ones entire career, and it also was supposed to help us
align our future initiatives and promotion and tenure kind of
processes with changing times. So, during this pond there
was a desire express to maybe take a look at what people have
been doing and seven years after promotion for professor was decided as the
time period and that’s for most of us been quite a bit long with the net but and
to actually presents a colloquium and share what they’re been doing with their
colleagues as well as what are their plans are for the future and so
that is what where here to do today. This is been going on since 2013,
we have a couple of pilots and so well received and
will continue to do this. So, I’d like to give you a little
bit of background to Dr. Chen. He came here in 2002. And received a complete PhD in
Mechanical Engineering from Delft University of Technology
in the Netherlands back in 1988. His research interest,
as all of you here know, actually include indoor environments and
that includes aircraft cabin environments, energy efficient, healthy and
sustainable buildings. And the analysis of their status. He received several awards in his career
including the Distinguished Service Award in 2013 from the International Building
Performance Simulation Association. The job recurred A gold medal in 2011 from
the Scandinavian Federation of Heating, Ventilating, and
Sanitary Engineering Association. And the Willis J. Whitfield Award in 2007 from the Institute
of Environmental Science and Technology. So, for the most interesting part. Then we just. Dr. Chen and we’ll hear what he’s been doing and
what he plans to do in the future.>>Thank you very much Maribel. Good afternoon everyone. Thank you for
coming here during the busy day. And as Maribel just mentioned,
we should do this every seven years. And I just counted being here for
15 years. So, I probably should come back
to do another one tomorrow.>>[LAUGH]
>>[LAUGH] So, this is my outline of the talk. I will give a brief
overview of my journey. So I grew up in rural area in Southern part of China,
on the opposite side of Taiwan, and in 1978 I went to Tsinghua University and
I received my bachelor degree in 1983. So, it’s a five year program. Then in 1984 with a sponsorship
from the Chinese government, I was able to study at
the Delft University of Technology. So I received my Masters Degree in 85 and
PhD in 88. So I still love this place and I still
remember little window of my office. So I’ve been there for four years. Then within Europe,
I finished my PhD study. I went to Zurich to do my post-doc. For two years and then I return back into the Netherlands
working for TNO as a project manager. So TNO is like a national lab but
is a would a pride, so small is like a kind of
industrial experience to my view. In in 1995, I went to MIT, so
restarted my academic career. So, I was assistant professor and
associate professor. So then 2002, I move here to Purdue,
the best place on Earth. So but it, during my tenure,
I’ve been working as a visiting professor. A freeing professor, a sought, what else, a jungle professor and honorable
professor in different continent. Including Asia, Australia and the Europe,
so for more than a dozen often times So, why I end our talk with
the building sciences. So when I grew up in
the Southern part of China, at that time we lived on less than one
yen per day, not one dollar per day. That’s like ten cents in
today’s type of life. So my biggest dream was
to not become a farmer. So, but you know I grew up during the so
called cultural revolution, probably everyone still have a kind of memory
even if you if you’re not old like me. So this dream wasn’t difficult to realize. But fortunately,
after the Cultural Revolution ended in 1976, Deng Xiaoping, the then Chinese
leader, decided to restart a university. So then I was fortunate admitted
to the Agrigultural Engineering at Tsinghua University,
the best university in China. So what I sled on potential in me
is maybe because of my father. My father was a supervisor for
a local, merchandise company, for all kinds of construction, so he always
bring home a lot of drawings and so on. And for me I think it was really nice so that is why I think I should have
studied architectural engineering. By I went to the University and
I find that yes, I get into architectural engineering but
there was only two choices for me I studied architecture or HVAC and not
as a civil engineering, I have in mind. So architecture I never
learned how to do joins, so I don’t know how to do anything
with architecture definitey. So I have to select HVAC. So, it’s another secrecy area,
but I found and it’s so fun. The my bachelor degree You know, with. Then my bachelor degree I
found that it was build a. And I might because I. And that is because I worked
with the Professor Yi Jiang. Who is the son of a math professor. So he always teaching me how to use different type of math to solve the
problems and that really fascinated me. And now is an academic and
hopefully Chinese aide. So then the question is how do I end it? With the lead in build environment. The energy and environment are more or
less like a twin. In the 1970s there was,
more or less, an energy crisis. And the gas stations in
the United States doesn’t sell gas. And energy was a bigger issue,
like the energy used in this country. Buildings used about 41%
of the primary energy. So, they are, a long time a lot of
the studies was done for buildings, certain conserve energy. But, of course, in China, you know,
the cultural revolution ended in 1976 So I our research in China
was a little bit late. So even in the early 1980s
where I start to finish my bachelor degree,
we were already having [INAUDIBLE]. So at that time I was
using [INAUDIBLE] to form. To solve the through the. And the other day when I prepared
this lecture I pulled it out and I and unfortunately I don’t
recognize what is written there. So I remember my professor
told me what you’ve forgotten this mod then you kinds for
what it means for engineer. Although I am not a word fms engineer but
definitely I’ve got the old man mark. Okay so
then out of my speciality degree and I had the opportunity to study abroad and
I set up in the Netherlands. Because my supervisor had studied
in energy simulation in buildings. And he gave me a very interesting problem, because this actually is a chamber for
studying energy. So look at the arrows now. He had, in this chamber,
two air conditioning systems. One is applied here on the top and
then you get [INAUDIBLE] on the bottom. And the other one, actually, is applied,
the air vertically underneath the window and then,
also it gets [INAUDIBLE] on the bottom. So, here follows, okay, for this scenario,
the airflow will go like that for this is standard air flow
[INAUDIBLE] goes like that. Then energy used won’t be the same because you know they are [INAUDIBLE]
standard energy into a room. You should get the standard energy. The way you measure this result and
then you find no, they are different. The [INAUDIBLE] of this one said,
energy use is one kilowatt. And then he measured the [INAUDIBLE]
system, energy and all, for this one, for all energies under 600 watt. It’s a 40% difference. Then he ask me to start it, why? So I took a list bachelor, sorry, master’s degree And
then at that time, starts to Not complaining to people
who are 30 years ago but I was one of the earlier ones
prior to the the A.C. system. Of course it’s interfume mechanical
system, it’s all today, a lot people, they use A C and D. And then I find for the first scenario
here, that he was right because we do get these types of air circulation, and
the temperature inside wasn’t uniform. So you’d be surprised, 18 degrees air in,
and it’s all in the 20th reading Degree. So there’s a 5 degree
difference between 11 and. Okay now in this scenario, he didn’t realize that the airflow
usually didn’t risen to the top. Airflow goes up and
then drops down because of the buoyancy. He was surprised here. So as a result the lower [INAUDIBLE] That wasn’t what I was sent, because it’s just that my supervisor did a raw measurement so it doesn’t [INAUDIBLE] the same energies there. So my research needed to move forward. But a lot of times in any countries,
they start using displacement [INAUDIBLE] And then this is cool and clean air [INAUDIBLE] and this will create a cool and clean air in the [INAUDIBLE]
And then of course, it got warm and
there are the result. Then, this will apply for heating. This sounds like a great idea. And I said to my supervisor, well listen, it didn’t look like what we started,
but just in to this, if this. The 90 degrees, we should be all set. And we can really solve for this type
of problem because when you design such a system has a lot of risk that’s there. For a designer, you need to understand
that there’s a lot of risk on the following because the quality air
might go [INAUDIBLE] [INAUDIBLE] And on other hand, you need to control
the temperature stratification. If the temperature gradient too big or too small,
you might end up having way uncomfort. So this [INAUDIBLE]. And on other hand,
[INAUDIBLE] is working safer energy. Look at [INAUDIBLE]. If possible, but
it needed to calculate that. So with the minority in the bachelor
degree I had done [INAUDIBLE]. And then for
my Master degree I had done [INAUDIBLE]. Then I said, look! [INAUDIBLE]. Of pertaining to temperature and the boundary conditions from
energy simulation program. On the other hand the energy
simulation program needs information about interior distribution which
is available on CFD calculus. So if I add and
combine these two programs and seeing that,
I can solve a pretty good problem. With your phone today,
you brace yourself in my PS3 degree. So when I combine them, and of course,
there’s also a lot of challenges there. If I jumble c and b,
your trans skills in terms of a second and then you’d solve, like in this room,
you’d probably use 10,000 grid at a time. And then it takes about a week in the
computer to do the simulation at at time. Then any simulation, the heat transfer,
the transfer depends on hours. If you consider each route just one node,
one temperature. And although the program’s very
complicated, we can solve it in a second. So the combination of the tune
was pretty challenging. And I don’t think I go to details. But you know I finally said this there
are, so we see that in combining these two programs and
produce a couple research papers. And then I wrote a series on this title. And a and my supervisor was interested. So he decided to how can you say
list of the synthesize a book. So, I was, when I haven’t,
we tend to decide to print the 400 copies and $1,000 as a loyalty. So, maybe today $1,000
doesn’t sound very much but, you know, this is a 30 years ago as
a student I was very happy about that. So that was the first time I realized
that knowledge can really sell for money. And that’s why I decided to
stick to the research field. Then, my test, post-lab, I continued
work on this and I, it was more engineering applications and then finally,
I produce a design guideline. This was the second book that
we produced for Asroy for how to design this present in the for
different type of spaces. And this book was sold pretty well. Actually in a couple month ago they
decided to have a second print. And I’m working to revise this book. So this is about my With
the building science. Now I like to highlight a few things about the recent building environment. No my work focus on
the amount because in a 19th century people carry any poisonous stuff. Even in the early 20th century there was
a contagious disease across in Europe. So you probably learn
this as influenza that was in 1915 which it killed 15
million people In the wall. So, the indoor environment modeling,
I mean, especially some comfort have
become popular under the 1930s. So, today, of course, we care more than just some
comfort about the disease removal. Within our comfort, health, but
also productivity and safety, etc. So even if we look at the future, and
we’re all thinking more about the person Because likely in this conference room,
we seem to be close to each other. So if someone was sneezing or coughing next to you,
you are likely to get Disease. So we need to design something which will
really accommodate individual’s need. And I also look at the closing level. We have sunny morning t-shirt and
somebody with a thick jacket. And that means summer comfort level in
this room might not be fit your needs. You have to use clover to adjust the beat. So, that’s why we needed to do a better
job in design the building moment. And, of course,
one thing is to use the CFD approaches. So, CFD, initially referred to three major
steps why is it to solve [INAUDIBLE] the equation without any
approximation we call this a DNS. Direct Numerical Simulation. And the second one is
to solve this equation by the use of some type of modeling. Further to the RANS, and
then the final one is a RANS. It’s a newly solved from the by using. So, these are three that can be seen on
such a philosophy scale such as time. So the has an issue to
calculate all the details, all into a very, very small scale. Now simulation,
you only calculated a of across which is. And the model only solve for
the velocity and The percentage of the fraction. So let’s review. Now this is a lot of study
been done on this field. But the one to be pride to be building
involved then the question for an engineer is which one do we choose. So if you look at the history, of course a lot of models being
developed for RANS for areas. And which you want to choose? That’s another,
what is the job of our engineer? Come in here and pick up whatever
is available and do the simulation. And sometimes through mechanical area they will cause it we can combine
different models together. For example,
we combine two different RANS models. It’s a SST k-w model. Or you combine RANS model
with a LES it becomes a DES. So my positive [INAUDIBLE] is a really
try to study different types of models. And then try to find out which
one is good for buildings. So we look at a number of
different building flows, and then use a different type of model,
and then try to grade them. And to see which one work the best for
all type of on the other hand,
we also look at the computing cost. For example, if you look at the areas,
and, of course, the cost will be like a couple hundred
times more than the simple model. Then your question is why do I
need the this complex model, even simple model can work. And that’s a application in a lot of depends on what type of
information we need. And, And the design So
I think in the designs world they are always needed to have multiple
choices for their design purpose. So just to show you how we often use
these to do the [INAUDIBLE] model study. So this is just to give you a scale, okay that’s 100 meters there’s
a group of buildings together. It started in Japan. They measured the outdoor and
indoor airflow. If you want to design [INAUDIBLE]
ventilation, you’ll need to do the study. I used [INAUDIBLE] ten
buildings they’ll do the study. And this is a photo of
the buildings there. And they also make sure the airflow
inside of one apartment in detail. Now, with the larger simulation,
as you can see here, you really can calculate
an airflow around a building. Okay, so
this information is very important if we want to design
a natural ventilation. How much of air can coming in. And before you do that you do
the outdoor airflow simulation. And you need to make sure this
simulation is correct because in the [INAUDIBLE] application
it’s a whole not really people always say [INAUDIBLE]
Even if you do [INAUDIBLE] no body believes [INAUDIBLE]
your result except yourself. And even if you do this,
[INAUDIBLE] Then everyone believes [INAUDIBLE] Okay so
let’s the reality. So, we need to [INAUDIBLE] So we use
the data from the measurement from Japan. So but I thought the measurement is
very challenging you really cannot so many sensors around buildings. They only can measure a few things. For example in this case, they are
measuring pressure around the buildings so you can calculate
the pressure coefficient. So, as you can see from this here,
they are not perfect, but it’s sufficiently good for
engineering applications. And then with that,
then I can calculate it. Know what happens inside a building. So, which are really very
good design properties. And then, I pause it. Inside our buildings we need to
compare again what is simulated and what is measured And because this
is a very compressed scenario. When you measure inside of buildings,
lead movement, the boundary conditions may not be
the same as in, used in the simulation. So you’ll never get perfect agreement. So, I would say if you get agreement, something like could be with that
magnitude have all the same and the difference is about 20%,
that’s very good. But with the simulation really
takes us a couple weeks for the one I just showed you. So as a design. Engineer, you definitely have
to have patience to wait out for a couple of weeks in order
to do a design case. So my effort in the past few
years as I tried to accelerate. So I used this as first fluid mechanics. In fact it also solved
the [INAUDIBLE] Equation, but the solving is a turn by
turn by using this method. And then finally, you solve this
operation by using similar approach. So this is one being used for
the computer games. Of course for
computer games if you get them. The reason for the visual effect, you
are satisfied by the way you use it for brilliant design when you need
a form use it form actors. So with some type of improvement on
ever be not originally now we can reach an agreement as you can
see on the velocity and then distribution in
the two functions here. so I want to show you
how useful this FFD for example if I want to design a variable. This is a very simple one. Inlet and outlet here. This should be the airflow pattern. So FFD I can run laser here, if you can’t see in laser window. You see that they are coming in,
this is a pretty fast to be here. And to show you r laser is a animated,
Force here as you can see. There’s a lot of things
that can be changed. And if I want to study for some of the smoke inside the buildings
then I can add that smoke here. And you can see the air is
getting cleaner and cleaner. So the is very fast. My computer here. As you can see,
maybe the font is too small here, this is about 86 times
faster than real time. That’s why you see very fast. So this powerful tool for
engineering application but that one, I mean,
if you use the reasonable size would be And therefore, we tried to use a different
to enhance the speed. So when we buy a computer
in the old days and we always look at on the CPUs,
look at their frequencies, right? And now frequency is being
increased to a certain you cannot enhance it anymore because too much
heat is being generated in the processors. And now today, like young people,
we have quite a few students here, you buy a computer. You are looking for the graphical cuts. Graphical cuts,
you have multiple processors inside. Each processor is fast, but
you have 100 processors there. So although the each processor is fast,
but with so many processors working together it is
much better than a single processor. So we tried to be able to FFD and GPU, and it has been pretty good. As you can see,
this is the computing time. And as you can count use of A million
to 10 million grids a year. So with that using the single processor, you probably need a couple
of hours to do a simulation. But would FFD [INAUDIBLE]
effort. And then you use GPU It can use
another 10 to 30 pounds of fur. Depends on the number
of [INAUDIBLE] you use. So this has been really
amazing to be here and have a 223 order of negative phosphate. So we try to promote this and
often I like to use. To tell the student it’s
important you get this right. Now you do a DNS. Now what if tried to do that. You really need a lot of to the detail and you need 100,000 years. To run a job. So here we starting today,
I don’t know when I’m going to get. But it would, you know it still can
be challenging with a computer. But when you hear that this now is
possible, a lot of design engineers These model to solve this problem and
with half of the you can do just including the you should
be able to get it resolved. So recognized. So we can and IT Use the most resort
as their telephone directory cover. And one thing is when there are list are
well as the building, is highlighted here, and that’s building 50. That’s for the Department of Earth,
Athmospheric, and Primitive Science that is designed by
a very famous architect the iron pit. So when the building
was designed there and then they find that they could open
the door and you cannot close it. You can close it. You can open it because
it will [INAUDIBLE]. And later on they have to put
a lid on the four corners and the building looks very strange. Of course I am able to [INAUDIBLE] in design to [INAUDIBLE]. He designed this I Computer Science building or [INAUDIBLE] building. So [INAUDIBLE]. So he was afraid of following the same
mistake then he asked me to do the simulation on these buildings making
sure there’s no similar problem occurs. Well today the building was there and there’s no bigger wind
although it was in Boston. So this proofs that in practise
this tool has been now since I moved to Purdue, I changed from
[INAUDIBLE] to mechanical engineering. So I find this really give me a new
horizon to what the difference. Regarding MIT I work on with [INAUDIBLE]
I happened to focus on building. Now I move it to the [INAUDIBLE] and
I look at the air current. Air current is a major problem in case
of the infectious disease outbreak. We know that SARS in 2003 and
H1N1 influenza in 2009 Just within a really short period of time,
the disease can be spread on over water. And this is what a difference
from 100 years ago when the Spanish Flu
killed 50 million people. There was a focus on Europe. You can’t imagine even
the Spanish Flu occurring today. Then, their earth might be work it out. So the reason it really made me
interested in studying the air flow, infectious disease
transmission in an airplane. Now how airplane works,
maybe some of you may not know this. So airplane really getting
the outdoor air through the engine. So engine to decompression,
negative pressure is sufficient to height. And then you go through
the air conditioning tank to the air conditioning process. And then you have the right pressure,
right temperature. And they send the air into cabin. And of course a lot of [INAUDIBLE] this
occurs in the cabin into the passengers. And a part of the [INAUDIBLE] air
need to be dumped to the outside and another part [INAUDIBLE]
filter [INAUDIBLE]. So then my job is to look, different type of effect in
preventing the infectious disease. For example, in an airplane, there’s always a lot of small
nozzles overhead, we call it the. So if we can turn on the and let [INAUDIBLE] clean air maybe
use it to prevent any diseases. So when we do that we find
it’s very challenging airplane is manufacturing
into a very high precision. Even dimension millimeter in the opening size, or
one millimeter in opening size. And to simulate the flow from
the capsule to the person, we found that we need that 12 [INAUDIBLE]. Even I do use the lesson format. And you can see the results are different. So that was very challenging. If one person made 12 million, and [INAUDIBLE] person. So 0.737 could house 200 people, so we don’t need a super computer for
this study. On the other hand, the airflow inside of the plane was
already challenging to start with. Although everything is statistic but
if we find that the flow is not stable. This is not just turbulence. It’s a lawfully conceit high bar for
oscillation. You can see here, just in different roles. Even the bounded condition is the same. The airflow pattern is the same. So we have to develop a lot of method to
try to simulate it and here they upright. It’s an ND82 airplane. [INAUDIBLE] finally we
can simulate with a. So at least it was a pretty good
challenging problem to start with. And then, of course, by working
with Tianjin University in China, we could measure what
happens in the cabin. And the cabin’s a pretty good fit. Normally when you use
a PIV to do a measurement, you only measure with a small. So we could have managed it to
combine a few images together, and we get to the air flow
inside of the cabin, and then we use the fluid scale, the real
airplane to measure boundary conditions, and then we find this boundary
condition was just as much as you can imagine, as much as you can imagine. Normally within the airplane,
this is really high tech, right. Everything is measured
with high precision. As I say one millimeter for open. But we find that when I measure air
flow supply on both sides of the plane, they are not symmetrical. Even along the length, some of them were
bigger flow, some of them were small flow. And later on, we find that even
we just have a very small nail, hammer in to the inlet,
could have [INAUDIBLE] air flow. So, this is another easy problem to solve. By the way,
I believe one detail I mentioned we were able to get the bonding condition for our simulation and with that simulation,
you can do a lot of fun things here. For example, if I want to study somebody
who is coughing, like if this person is coughing and then this is can do. You can really study how the particles
with dividers is channeling inside. And of course this must be
otherwise that doesn’t go to away. [COUGH] And this here only
can be done through the CMD. Because with a CMD, you can see
all the details, where the air for all the particles is going, and
that you can even see the particle size. If it evaporates, do it in the tense form. And these type of details you
cannot measure because inclement so far we don’t have the ability to
capture these type of details. Now when we look at
the airplane in reality, try to understand that
how the SARS occurs. This is a very famous flight from
Hong Kong to Beijing in 2003. And this one person who
decides to stay here. And there’s only two hours flight and
later on they find this out. About more than 20 people in
the cabin has that effect. And four of them unfortunately die. Now if you look at this cabin and
then you will see, well the people affected might
not just stay near this person. Some of them can be,
they cover all the rows in white. Seven or eight rows in white. So we needed to understand why it occured. So we suspected that one person
couldn’t really have an impact. Person walking around. Passengers there. But if you stop here and
then you can see the values. Clearly you can go through the cabin. And that person could be affected. But of course there is no proof
that we can really confirm that that’s the true case. But in theory,
now this is a plausible scenario. And as in CNN was getting
a couple years ago. They decided to show this to the public. So they used our result to show how
important the transmission can be. So we simulated a case. One person here who is coughing. But this is just a normal cough. Okay we see it doesn’t go vey far anyway. And then by working with the Harbor School
of Public Health, we try to understand. If somebody cough out,
would likely SARS or Influenza virus,
how many people could be affected? So I think I find this very
interesting by working with the republican health scientists. Can tell us the possibility someone can
be affected by a certain level of virus. And for this cabin scenario, I just want
to show probably this is just wait for a few seconds go into the end Well
find out these [INAUDIBLE] people will be infected with a possibility of
more than 90% for [INAUDIBLE]. So when you have Friday, so it’s better not seating with
someone in the same room, okay? Seating in a front or back [INAUDIBLE]. So this is just to show the importance
of a [INAUDIBLE] result. But of course,
you need to know who is sitting there. And I think that still some of you
might remember this person called Andrew Speaker. In the US, we have two list now for
non-fly list. One is for terrorists,
because you cannot fly. And another is for
someone like Andrew Speaker, who has an incurable tuberculosis so
that’s he cannot fly. But when this guy went to meet her and
then decide to honeymoon. So as result, flew out of Atlanta to Rome,
and then return to Toronto, probably some of you still
remember the names, right? Then people asking me [INAUDIBLE],
well can you do find catch this person,
in case he was born in a airplane. So of course, now the sensor doesn’t have
the ability to detect TB right away. But suppose if we have a sensor
can detect the TB right away, [INAUDIBLE] install the sensor
on top of the ceiling here. And by using the so-called
inverse modeling. We could really determine
very easily [INAUDIBLE]. So this is just inverse simulation, and we find more or
less the area we like to find. And of course, [INAUDIBLE] you cannot
just solve an [INAUDIBLE] equation to carry it because now [INAUDIBLE]
equation is not reversible. When you reverse, it doesn’t work. So we have to,
an alternative non-stop equation a little bit to make sure it doesn’t
really lead it to [INAUDIBLE]. And now,
if we think about [INAUDIBLE] simulation, we could think about
[INAUDIBLE] design even better. For example, somebody [INAUDIBLE] sit
there, you want to be comfortable. [INAUDIBLE] Your area or the area
[INAUDIBLE] could be comfortable and in the front, nobody there. We don’t have to take good care of that. So which means I just wanted to see,
can I find out what type of a system could lead to a little more design and
lastly, inverse modelling. So traditionally,
you can try multiple ways. You might not get [INAUDIBLE] and therefore we just usually
use the inverse model. And within the past few years, we have done a number of inverse modeling,
as you can see here. And I want to just point
out just two methods. One is a genetic algorithm
which really uses the other method to select, and the best
solution you could finally [INAUDIBLE] better solution which could lead to a desirable design. For example, for this simple room and
then we find out literally parameters inside [INAUDIBLE]
color doming which means a certain temperature,
velocity and angle combination. You can design the [INAUDIBLE]
around the person to be comfortable. And the same thing if I use the adjoint
method which is kind of a gradient method. You can also find out what
a best solution can be. So to do this, it can be very interesting. For example, you might want to
design a defuser which can supply the air velocity [INAUDIBLE]
through the defuser. And by using this adjoining
method we can find out what is the strangest shape of the tank. Okay, and this [INAUDIBLE] I don’t
think you can imagine yourself. But by using more of the adjoint
method you can produce this shape and [INAUDIBLE] the uniform distribution. Otherwise your conventional design will
never get a lot of volume [INAUDIBLE]. So if we use the listen method in fact, it’s really a gradient base just
like you are shooting basketball. You know the first time you shoot it,
it doesn’t get in. Then you adjust the distance
through the gradient, okay? And the second time you get. So with this I use the method to design
thermal comfort inside the cabin. Traditional design you will not
get a really comfortable design. But in this modeling what allows
you to get the best comfort possible on the cause of
diffused location, the velocity, the temperature what the different
from a traditional approach? So this approach you won’t normally,
cannot imagine yourself. [INAUDIBLE] Still a lot of
things needed to look about. But with the list we are happy
that another permission [INAUDIBLE] decided to
publish a book on this one. So this is the book will
be published in July. It’s 80,000 words, six chapters. So yeah, I use this quite a lot now. [LAUGH] Okay, just quickly here. So in my career,
I’ve published three books, edited a couple of journals and
published over 200 journal papers. [INAUDIBLE] Book chapters. I also have some patents,
invited to deliver a number of lectures, so just to mention here,
this is Google Scholar. Today I just looked,
I have over 10,000 citations in my career. And since 2012,
I’ve gotten 5,000 citations. Nobody has mentioned none
[INAUDIBLE] in talking about awards. So I don’t think I need to
go through the details. So finally,
I want to spend just three minutes to talk about another [INAUDIBLE] I
contributed to, it’s about services. So since 2007, I’ve been editor and
chief for this journal. This journal it’s the oldest in our field,
one of the oldest in our field. So it started publication in 1965. So before me,
there was three other editors. So in the early days,
not a lot of topic [INAUDIBLE]. But since 1990, the publication just
well [INAUDIBLE] as you can see here. And under my ship we improve a lot
on the general impact factor. In early days it was
another [INAUDIBLE] 0.5. So since I start this [INAUDIBLE] is 3.34. So the is three out of 269 in the building and construction category. Four out of 379 in the civil or
engineering category. All four out of 172 [INAUDIBLE]. So finally, I’d like to. Finally, everyone who have
contributed to my work. And one single of one page would taught
us over with just my own contributions in all of them., major of it was done by
my current involvement revenue experience without them I think it probably my
publications over will just be then, okay then of course, there’s a lot
of funding from the government, and then the journal is
working with a lot of editors. So I will stop here and see if
there’s any questions from you guys?>>[APPLAUSE]
>>What’s next?>>[LAUGH]
>>The question what is next? Yeah, I think this is a very
challenging question, right? I mean, it’s really short. Definitely, I think the tools
are developed so far has been very useful. And and I have been working together,
to try to Getting something big for our buildings. And I’m still saying that the building
use so much energy and people care so much about the indoor environment, so
my focus will definitely be in buildings. And I’m really looking forward
to work with you again, to get the sum done [INAUDIBLE] moving on. Both you and I been looking for
opportunities in this one. And the other done great job but you
[INAUDIBLE] buildings very nice ground. In our work. And I think based on Yes.>>Can I have another question? So as you come along, you start with
a real fundamental approach based on basic principles. And then In later years I think
supported by computation and advances in optimization techniques
that’s been supplemented, and you’ve done even more. So kind of where do you see the next, so right now what is the biggest hurdle
to making another breakthrough. What do you think the new shot might be in
terms of trying to accomplish something?>>Yes, because this is tape recorded, I want to recite your questions here for
recalling. So the question is,
what do I see the next move by looking at, the past because in the beginning I
was doing some more fundamental work, then move into the optimization, etc. I think it’s a great question. And if you look at the building design,
we often need a lot of design tools. In the past few years and
like and the application of BMI. No, BIM, Building Information Modeling,
was really hard. And, of course, the simulations, by using energy program,
like energy has being always there. Now for indoor and mountain design, we
have been lacking tools we have a lot of tools for example like fluent it’s
a kind of computational tool. But it’s a too expensive for
a designer tools. Because the building industry is only
fragment even look at design firms they can not afford to buy
a bigger computer program for occasional design,
unless it’s a firm like Boeing. They always use these. So I’m just thinking
probably one area I like to develop is really to develop a not so
expensive tool. Not too complicated tools for
designers to Design better buildings. The accuracy is not really crucial. This is not like the design
of a satellite or right? That the precision is very important. In buildings,
if the temperature slightly higher, slightly lower,
they will not kill a person, okay? But we need to think out of box. Now our traditional design is
always having the diffusers here, having exhaust there. I need to dampen so much energy. The question is, I just want myself to
be comfortable in my one person office. I don’t need to condition the entire
air space to be comfortable. Now how to realize that to save energy. And I think at least it’s something,
we don’t have a tool for it. And therefore I think this is
probably the direction we like to go.>>Thank you.>>Other questions? Maybe I’ll have some after we finish. Yeah.
[LAUGH]>>All right, thank you so much.>>[APPLAUSE]