Duke University | Wikipedia audio article

Duke University | Wikipedia audio article

October 10, 2019 0 By Stanley Isaacs


Duke University is a private research university
in Durham, North Carolina. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity
in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. In 1924, tobacco and electric power industrialist
James Buchanan Duke established The Duke Endowment and the institution changed its name to honor
his deceased father, Washington Duke. Duke’s campus spans over 8,600 acres (3,500
hectares) on three contiguous campuses in Durham as well as a marine lab in Beaufort.
The main campus—designed largely by architect Julian Abele—incorporates Gothic architecture
with the 210-foot (64-meter) Duke Chapel at the campus’ center and highest point of elevation.
The first-year-populated East Campus contains Georgian-style architecture, while the main
Gothic-style West Campus 1.5 miles (2.4 kilometers) away is adjacent to the Medical Center. The
university runs two concurrent universities in Asia, Duke Kunshan University in Kunshan,
China, and Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore. Duke is ranked 8th in the U.S. News & World
Report Best Colleges Ranking and 22nd in the U.S. News & World Report Best Global University
Ranking. In 2017, Forbes lists Duke among the top ten universities to “produce the most
Forbes 400 billionaires”. In a corporate study carried out by The New York Times, Duke’s
graduates were shown to be among the most sought-after and valued in the world, and
Forbes magazine ranked Duke 7th in the world on its list of ‘power factories’.As of 2018,
13 Nobel laureates and 3 Turing Award winners have been affiliated with the university.
Further, Duke alumni include 40 Rhodes Scholars and 25 Churchill Scholars. The university
has produced the 5th highest number of Rhodes, Marshall, Truman, Goldwater, and Udall Scholars
of any American university between 1986 and 2015. In 2018, the Wall Street Journal ranked
Duke first (tied with Harvard and Yale) for graduate outcomes. As of 2018, Duke also holds
a top-ten position in several national rankings.==History=====Beginnings===Duke started in 1838 as Brown’s Schoolhouse,
a private subscription school founded in Randolph County in the present-day town of Trinity.
Organized by the Union Institute Society, a group of Methodists and Quakers, Brown’s
Schoolhouse became the Union Institute Academy in 1841 when North Carolina issued a charter.
The academy was renamed Normal College in 1851 and then Trinity College in 1859 because
of support from the Methodist Church. In 1892, Trinity College moved to Durham, largely due
to generosity from Julian S. Carr and Washington Duke, powerful and respected Methodists who
had grown wealthy through the tobacco and electrical industries. Carr donated land in
1892 for the original Durham campus, which is now known as East Campus. At the same time,
Washington Duke gave the school $85,000 for an initial endowment and construction costs—later
augmenting his generosity with three separate $100,000 contributions in 1896, 1899, and
1900—with the stipulation that the college “open its doors to women, placing them on
an equal footing with men.” In 1924 Washington Duke’s son, James B. Duke,
established The Duke Endowment with a $40 million trust fund. Income from the fund was
to be distributed to hospitals, orphanages, the Methodist Church, and four colleges (including
Trinity College). William Preston Few, the president of Trinity at the time, insisted
that the institution be renamed Duke University to honor the family’s generosity and to distinguish
it from the myriad other colleges and universities carrying the “Trinity” name. At first, James
B. Duke thought the name change would come off as self-serving, but eventually he accepted
Few’s proposal as a memorial to his father. Money from the endowment allowed the University
to grow quickly. Duke’s original campus, East Campus, was rebuilt from 1925 to 1927 with
Georgian-style buildings. By 1930, the majority of the Collegiate Gothic-style buildings on
the campus one mile (1.6 km) west were completed, and construction on West Campus culminated
with the completion of Duke Chapel in 1935. In 1878, Trinity (in Randolph County) awarded
A.B. degrees to three sisters—Mary, Persis, and Theresa Giles—who had studied both with
private tutors and in classes with men. With the relocation of the college in 1892, the
Board of Trustees voted to again allow women to be formally admitted to classes as day
students. At the time of Washington Duke’s donation in 1896, which carried the requirement
that women be placed “on an equal footing with men” at the college, four women were
enrolled; three of the four were faculty members’ children. In 1903 Washington Duke wrote to
the Board of Trustees withdrawing the provision, noting that it had been the only limitation
he had ever put on a donation to the college. A woman’s residential dormitory was built
in 1897 and named the Mary Duke Building, after Washington Duke’s daughter. By 1904,
fifty-four women were enrolled in the college. In 1930, the Woman’s College was established
as a coordinate to the men’s undergraduate college, which had been established and named
Trinity College in 1924.===Expansion and growth===
Engineering, which had been taught since 1903, became a separate school in 1939. In athletics,
Duke hosted and competed in the only Rose Bowl ever played outside California in Wallace
Wade Stadium in 1942. During World War II, Duke was one of 131 colleges and universities
nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students
a path to a Navy commission. In 1963 the Board of Trustees officially desegregated the undergraduate
college. Increased activism on campus during the 1960s prompted Martin Luther King Jr.
to speak at the University in November 1964 on the progress of the Civil Rights Movement.
Following Douglas Knight’s resignation from the office of university president, Terry
Sanford, the former governor of North Carolina, was elected president of the university in
1969, propelling The Fuqua School of Business’ opening, the William R. Perkins library completion,
and the founding of the Institute of Policy Sciences and Public Affairs (now the Sanford
School of Public Policy). The separate Woman’s College merged back with Trinity as the liberal
arts college for both men and women in 1972. Beginning in the 1970s, Duke administrators
began a long-term effort to strengthen Duke’s reputation both nationally and internationally.
Interdisciplinary work was emphasized, as was recruiting minority faculty and students.
During this time it also became the birthplace of the first Physician Assistant degree program
in the United States. Duke University Hospital was finished in 1980 and the student union
building was fully constructed two years later. In 1986 the men’s soccer team captured Duke’s
first National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) championship, and the men’s basketball
team followed shortly thereafter with championships in 1991 and 1992, then again in 2001, 2010,
and 2015.===Recent history===
Duke’s growth and academic focus have contributed to continuing the university’s reputation
as an academic and research powerhouse. In 2013, Duke Kunshan University (DKU), a
partnership between Duke University, Wuhan University, and the city of Kunshan was established
in Kunshan, China. DKU blends liberal education with Chinese tradition in a new approach to
elite higher education in China, in both undergraduate and graduate divisions. Students are awarded
degrees from both Duke University and Duke Kunshan University upon graduation and become
members of Duke and DKU’s alumni organizations.DKU will conduct research projects on climate
change, health-care policy and tuberculosis prevention and control.Duke and the National
University of Singapore signed a formal agreement in April 2005 under which the two institutions
would partner to establish a Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore. Duke-NUS is intended
to complement the National University of Singapore’s existing undergraduate medical school, and
had its first entering class in 2007. The school’s curriculum is patterned after that
of the Duke University School of Medicine. 60% of matriculates are from Singapore and
40% are from over 20 countries. The school is part of the National University of Singapore
system, but unique in that it is overseen by a Governing Board, including a Duke representative
who has veto power over any academic decision made by the Board.Duke Forward, a seven-year
fundraising campaign, raised $3.85 billion through June 30, 2017. The record giving by
more than 315,000 donors and foundations will enrich the student experience in and out of
the classroom, invest in faculty and support research and initiatives.
Among academic achievements at Duke, three students were named Rhodes Scholars in both
2002 and 2006, a number surpassed only by Harvard in 2002 and the United States Military
Academy in 2006. Overall, Duke has produced 46 Rhodes Scholars through 2015, including
24 between 1990 and 2015. Also, the first working demonstration of an
invisibility cloak was unveiled by Duke researchers in October 2006. In 2006, three men’s lacrosse team members
were falsely accused of rape, which garnered significant media attention. On April 11,
2007, North Carolina Attorney General Roy Cooper dropped all charges and declared the
three players innocent. Cooper stated that the charged players were victims of a “tragic
rush to accuse.” The university has “historical, formal, ongoing,
and symbolic ties” with the United Methodist Church, but is a nonsectarian and independent
institution.On August 19, 2017, following the violent clashes at the Unite the Right
rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, the statue of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee was removed
from the entrance to the Duke University Chapel, after having been vandalized by protesters.Duke
is the second-largest private employer in North Carolina with more than 37,000 employed
and is consistently ranked among the top places to work by multiple publications, including
Forbes and The Chronicle of Higher Education.==Campus==Duke University owns 254 buildings on 8,691
acres (35.17 km2) of land, which includes the 7,044 acres (28.51 km2) Duke Forest. The
campus is divided into four main areas: West, East, and Central campuses and the Medical
Center, which are all connected via a free bus service. On the Atlantic coast in Beaufort,
Duke owns 15 acres (61,000 m2) as part of its marine lab. One of the major public attractions
on the main campus is the 55-acre (220,000 m2) Sarah P. Duke Gardens, established in
the 1930s.Duke students often refer to the campus as “the Gothic Wonderland”, a nickname
referring to the Collegiate Gothic architecture of West Campus. Much of the campus was designed
by Julian Abele, one of the first prominent African-American architects and the chief
designer in the offices of architect Horace Trumbauer. The residential quadrangles are
of an early and somewhat unadorned design, while the buildings in the academic quadrangles
show influences of the more elaborate late French and Italian styles. The freshmen campus
(East Campus) is composed of buildings in the Georgian architecture style. In 2011,
Travel+Leisure listed Duke among the most beautiful college campuses in the United States.The
stone used for West Campus has seven primary colors and seventeen shades of color. The
university supervisor of planning and construction wrote that the stone has “an older, more attractive
antique effect” and a “warmer and softer coloring than the Princeton stone” that gave the university
an “artistic look.” James B. Duke initially suggested the use of stone from a quarry in
Princeton, New Jersey, but later amended the plans to purchase a local quarry in Hillsborough
to reduce costs. Duke Chapel stands at the center of West Campus on the highest ridge.
Constructed from 1930 to 1935, the chapel seats 1,600 people and, at 210 feet (64 m)
is one of the tallest buildings in Durham County.A number of construction projects were
in progress during 2015, including renovations to Duke Chapel, Wallace Wade Stadium (football)
and Cameron Indoor Stadium (basketball).In early 2014, the Nicholas School of the Environment
opened a new home, Environmental Hall, a five-story, glass-and-concrete building that incorporates
the highest sustainable features and technologies, and meets or exceeds the criteria for LEED
platinum certification. The School of Nursing in April 2014 opened a new 45,000-square-foot
addition to the Christine Siegler Pearson Building. In summer 2014, a number of construction
projects were completed. The project is part of the final phase of renovations to Duke’s
West Campus libraries that have transformed one of the university’s oldest and most recognizable
buildings into a state-of-the-art research facility. The David M. Rubenstein Rare Book
and Manuscript Library reopened in August 2015 after about $60 million in renovations
to the sections of the building built in 1928 and 1948. The renovations include more space,
technology upgrades and new exhibits. In 2013, construction projects included transforming
buildings like Gross Hall and Baldwin Auditorium, plus new construction such as the Events Pavilion.
About 125,000 square feet was updated at Gross Hall, including new lighting and windows and
a skylight. Baldwin’s upgrades include a larger stage, more efficient air conditioning for
performers and audience and enhanced acoustics that will allow for the space to be “tuned”
to each individual performance. The 25,000-square-foot Events Pavilion opened to students in 2013
and serves as temporary dining space while the West Campus Union undergoes major renovations,
expected to be completed in the spring of 2016.
From February 2001 to November 2005, Duke spent $835 million on 34 major construction
projects as part of a five-year strategic plan, “Building on Excellence.” Completed
projects since 2002 include major additions to the business, law, nursing, and divinity
schools, a new library, the Nasher Museum of Art, a football training facility, two
residential buildings, an engineering complex, a public policy building, an eye institute,
two genetic research buildings, a student plaza, the French Family Science Center, and
two new medical-research buildings.In early 2012, the Duke Cancer Center opened next to
Duke Hospital in Durham. The patient care facility consolidates nearly all of Duke’s
outpatient clinical care services.===West, East, and Central Campuses===
See main article, Duke University West Campus West Campus, considered the main campus of
the University, houses the sophomores and juniors, along with some seniors. Most of
the academic and administrative centers are located there. Main West Campus, with Duke
Chapel at its center, contains the majority of residential quads to the south, while the
main academic quad, library, and Medical Center are to the north. The campus, spanning 720
acres (2.9 km2), includes Science Drive, which is the location of science and engineering
buildings. The residential quads on West Campus are Craven Quad, Crowell Quad, Edens Quad,
Few Quad, Keohane Quad, Kilgo Quad, and Wannamaker Quad. Most of the campus eateries and sports
facilities—including the historic basketball stadium, Cameron Indoor Stadium—are on West
Campus. East Campus, the original location of Duke
after it moved to Durham, functions as a first-year campus, housing the university’s freshmen
dormitories as well as the home of several academic departments. Since the 1995–96
academic year, all freshmen—and only freshmen, except for upperclassmen serving as Resident
Assistants—have lived on East Campus, an effort to build class unity. The campus encompasses
97 acres (390,000 m2) and is 1.5 miles (2.4 km) from West Campus. African and African
American Studies, Art History, History, Cultural Anthropology, Literature, Music, Philosophy,
and Women’s Studies are housed on East. Programs such as dance, drama, education, film, and
the University Writing Program reside on East. The self-sufficient East Campus contains the
freshmen residence halls, a dining hall, coffee shop, post office, Lilly Library, Baldwin
Auditorium, a theater, Brodie Gym, tennis courts, several disc golf baskets, and a walking
track as well as several academic buildings. The East Campus dorms are Alspaugh, Basset,
Bell Tower, Blackwell, Brown, East House (formerly known as Aycock), Epworth, Gilbert-Addoms,
Giles, Jarvis, Pegram, Randolph, Southgate, Trinity, and Wilson. Separated from downtown
by a short walk, the area was the site of the Women’s College from 1930 to 1972. Central Campus, consisting of 122 acres (0.49
km2) between East and West campuses, houses around 1,000 sophomores, juniors, and seniors,
as well as around 200 professional students in double or quadruple apartments. There are
26 specific houses, accommodating 22 selective living groups (sororities and fraternities),
3 independent houses and 1 administrative house. Central Campus is home to the Nasher
Museum of Art, the Freeman Center for Jewish Life, the Center for Muslim Life, the Duke
Police Department, the Duke Office of Disability Management, a Ronald McDonald House, and administrative
departments such as Duke Residence Life and Housing Services. Central Campus has several
recreation and social facilities such as basketball courts, a sand volleyball court, a turf field,
barbecue grills and picnic shelters, a general gathering building called “Devil’s Den”, a
restaurant known as “Devil’s Bistro”, a convenience store called Uncle Harry’s, and the Mill Village.
The Mill Village consists of a gym and group study rooms.===Duke Kunshan University Campus===See main article, Duke Kunshan University#Campus
Located within the Kunshan Yangcheng Lake Science Park in China, the first phase of
the DKU campus includes classroom and research spaces, student and faculty residences, dining
facilities, an executive conference center, and recreation and leisure spaces. An innovation
center is set to open in 2019. An expansive Phase II development will see the addition
of numerous new residence halls, academic spaces, and student recreational facilities
by 2021, with plans for Phases III and IV under way. The 200-acre site has a high water
table, so designers elected to preserve 40 acres as community gardens.===Key places===Duke Forest, established in 1931, consists
of 7,044 acres (28.51 km2) in six divisions, just west of West Campus. The largest private
research forest in North Carolina and one of the largest in the nation, the Duke Forest
demonstrates a variety of forest stand types and silvicultural treatments. Duke Forest
is used extensively for research and includes the Aquatic Research Facility, Forest Carbon
Transfer and Storage (FACTS-I) research facility, two permanent towers suitable for micrometerological
studies, and other areas designated for animal behavior and ecosystem study. More than 30
miles (48 km) of trails are open to the public for hiking, cycling, and horseback riding.The
Duke Lemur Center, located inside the Duke Forest, is the world’s largest sanctuary for
rare and endangered strepsirrhine primates. Founded in 1966, the Duke Lemur Center spans
85 acres (34 ha) and contains nearly 300 animals of 25 different species of lemurs, galagos
and lorises. The Sarah P. Duke Gardens, established in
the early 1930s, is situated between West Campus and the apartments of Central Campus.
The gardens occupy 55 acres (22 ha), divided into four major sections: the original Terraces
and their surroundings; the H.L. Blomquist Garden of Native Plants, devoted to flora
of the Southeastern United States; the W.L. Culberson Asiatic Arboretum, housing plants
of Eastern Asia, as well as disjunct species found in Eastern Asia and Eastern North America;
and the Doris Duke Center Gardens. There are five miles (8.0 km) of allées and paths throughout
the gardens.Duke University Medical Center, bordering Duke’s West Campus northern boundary,
combines one of the top-rated hospitals and one of the top-ranked medical schools in the
U.S. Founded in 1930, the Medical Center occupies 8 million square feet (700,000 m²) in 99
buildings on 210 acres (85 ha). Duke University Marine Laboratory, located
in the town of Beaufort, North Carolina, is also technically part of Duke’s campus. The
marine lab is situated on Pivers Island on the Outer Banks of North Carolina, 150 yards
(140 m) across the channel from Beaufort. Duke’s interest in the area began in the early
1930s and the first buildings were erected in 1938. The resident faculty represent the
disciplines of oceanography, marine biology, marine biomedicine, marine biotechnology,
and coastal marine policy and management. The Marine Laboratory is a member of the National
Association of Marine Laboratories. In May 2014, the newly built Orrin H. Pilkey Marine
Research Laboratory was dedicated.==Administration and organization==
Duke University has 12 schools and institutes, three of which host undergraduate programs:
Trinity College of Arts and Sciences, Pratt School of Engineering, and Duke Kunshan University.Duke’s
endowment had a market value of $7.9 billion in the fiscal year that ended June 30, 2017.
The University’s special academic facilities include an art museum, several language labs,
the Duke Forest, the Duke Herbarium, a lemur center, a phytotron, a free electron laser,
a nuclear magnetic resonance machine, a nuclear lab, and a marine lab. Duke is a leading participant
in the National Lambda Rail Network and runs a program for gifted children known as the
Talent Identification Program.==Academics=====Admissions===
Admission to Duke is defined by U.S. News & World Report as “most selective.” Duke received
37,302 applications for the Class of 2022, an 8% increase in applications comparable
to that of peer institutions like Harvard and Yale. The yield rate (the percentage of
accepted students who choose to attend) for the Class of 2020 was 50.4%. For the Class
of 2021, the Trinity School of Arts and Science had an ACT range of 31-35 and an SAT range
of 1440-1570, and the Pratt School of Engineering had an ACT range of 33-35 and an SAT range
of 1490-1570. (Test score ranges account for the 25th-75th percentile of accepted students.)
From 2001 to 2011, Duke has had the sixth highest number of Fulbright, Rhodes, Truman,
and Goldwater scholarships in the nation among private universities. The University practices
need-blind admissions and meets 100% of admitted students’ demonstrated need. About 50 percent
of all Duke students receive some form of financial aid, which includes need-based aid,
athletic aid, and merit aid. The average need-based grant for the 2015–16 academic year was
nearly $45,074.Roughly 60 merit-based full tuition scholarships are offered, including
the Angier B. Duke Memorial Scholarship awarded for academic excellence, the Benjamin N. Duke
Scholarship awarded for community service, and the Robertson Scholars Leadership Program,
a joint scholarship and leadership development program granting full student privileges at
both Duke and UNC-Chapel Hill. Other scholarships are geared toward students in North Carolina,
African-American students, children of alumni, and high-achieving students requiring financial
aid.===Graduate profile===
In 2009, the School of Medicine received 5,166 applications and accepted approximately 4%
of them, while the average GPA and MCAT scores for accepted students from 2002 through 2009
were 3.74 and 34, respectively. The School of Law accepted approximately 13% of its applicants
for the Class of 2014, while enrolling students had a median GPA of 3.75 and median LSAT of
170.The University’s graduate and professional schools include the Graduate School, the Pratt
School of Engineering, the Nicholas School of the Environment, the School of Medicine,
the Duke-NUS Medical School, the School of Nursing, the Fuqua School of Business, the
School of Law, the Divinity School, and the Sanford School of Public Policy.===Undergraduate curriculum===Duke offers 46 arts and sciences majors, four
engineering majors, 52 Minors (including two in engineering) and Program II, which allows
students to design their own interdisciplinary major in arts & sciences, and IDEAS, which
allows students to design their own engineering major. Twenty-four certificate programs also
are available. Students pursue a major, and can pursue a combination of a total of up
to three including minors, certificates, and/or a second major. Eighty-five percent of undergraduates
enroll in the Trinity College of Arts and Sciences, while the rest are in the Pratt
School of Engineering.Trinity’s curriculum operates under the revised version of “Curriculum
2000.” It ensures that students are exposed to a variety of “areas of knowledge” and “modes
of inquiry.” The curriculum aims to help students develop critical faculties and judgment by
learning how to access, synthesize, and communicate knowledge effectively. The intent is to assist
students in acquiring perspective on current and historical events, conducting research
and solving problems, and developing tenacity and a capacity for hard and sustained work.
Freshmen can elect to participate in the FOCUS Program, which allows students to engage in
an interdisciplinary exploration of a specific topic in a small group setting.Pratt’s curriculum
is narrower in scope, but still accommodates double majors in a variety of disciplines.
The school emphasizes undergraduate research—opportunities for hands-on experiences arise through internships,
fellowship programs, and the structured curriculum. More than 27 percent of Pratt undergraduates
study abroad, small compared to about half of Trinity undergraduates, but much larger
than the recent national average for engineering students (3.2%).===Libraries and museums===Duke Libraries includes the Perkins, Bostock,
and Rubenstein Libraries on West Campus, the Lilly and Music Libraries on East Campus,
the Pearse Memorial Library at the Duke Marine Lab, and the separately administered libraries
serving the schools of business, divinity, law and medicine.
Duke’s art collections are housed at the Nasher Museum of Art on Central Campus. The museum
was designed by Rafael Viñoly and is named for Duke alumnus and art collector Raymond
Nasher. The museum opened in 2005 at a cost of over $23 million and contains over 13,000
works of art, including works by William Cordova, Marlene Dumas, Olafur Eliasson, David Hammons,
Barkley L. Hendricks, Christian Marclay, Kerry James Marshall, Alma Thomas, Hank Willis Thomas,
Bob Thompson, Kara Walker, Andy Warhol, Carrie Mae Weems, Ai Weiwei, Fred Wilson, and Lynette
Yiadom Boakye.===Research===Duke’s research expenditures in the 2015 fiscal
year were $1.037 billion, the seventh largest in the nation. In the 2013 fiscal year, Duke
University Medical Center received $270 million in funding from the National Institutes of
Health (exclusive of contracts and Economic Stimulus Program awards). Duke’s faculty is among the most productive
in the nation. Throughout the school’s history, Duke researchers have made breakthroughs,
including the biomedical engineering department’s development of the world’s first real-time,
three-dimensional ultrasound diagnostic system and the first engineered blood vessels and
stents. In 2015, Paul Modrich shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. In 2012, Robert Lefkowitz
along with Brian Kobilka, who is also a former affiliate, shared the Nobel Prize in chemistry
for their work on cell surface receptors. Duke has pioneered studies involving nonlinear
dynamics, chaos, and complex systems in physics. In May 2006 Duke researchers mapped the final
human chromosome, which made world news as the Human Genome Project was finally complete.
Reports of Duke researchers’ involvement in new AIDS vaccine research surfaced in June
2006. The biology department combines two historically strong programs in botany and
zoology, while one of the divinity school’s leading theologians is Stanley Hauerwas, whom
Time named “America’s Best Theologian” in 2001. The graduate program in literature boasts
several internationally renowned figures, including Fredric Jameson, Michael Hardt,
and Rey Chow, while philosophers Robert Brandon and Lakatos Award-winner Alexander Rosenberg
contribute to Duke’s ranking as the nation’s best program in philosophy of biology, according
to the Philosophical Gourmet Report.The Faculty Scholarly Productivity Index ranked Duke’s
faculty first in the nation in the fields of Oncology and Cancer Biology, Biomedical
Engineering and Applied Economics. The Public Policy, Statistics, Chemistry, Environmental
Science, Medicine and Molecular Genetics departments (among others) all ranked in the top five.
Several other departments including Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Nursing
ranked in the top ten.===Reputation and rankings=======Undergraduate rankings====
Duke University is ranked in the top 10 in the following college ranking publications:
U.S. News & World Report (8th), USA Today (3rd),Washington Monthly (6th), Kiplinger
(4th), The Wall Street Journal “Student Outcomes” (1st), The Wall Street Journal (7th), Forbes
(10th), Forbes (9th most billionaires), The Washington Post (7th), Princeton Review (5th
dream colleges), CollegeFactual (3rd) and Business Insider (7th). In the past twenty
years, U.S. News & World Report has placed Duke as high as 3rd and as low as 10th. In
2014, Duke was ranked 1st in the United States for majors in psychology, and 10th overall
for computer science and engineering. In 2014 and 2018, Duke was ranked 1st in the United
States for majors in economics. In 2016, The Washington Post ranked Duke 7th overall based
on the accumulated weighted average of the rankings from U.S. News & World Report, Washington
Monthly, Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education, Times Higher Education (global),
Money and Forbes.In 2016–17, Duke was ranked 19th in the world by U.S. News & World Report,
17th in the world by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, 14th in the world
by Newsweek. QS World University Rankings ranked Duke 21st in the world for its 2017–18
rankings. Duke was ranked 25th best globally by the Academic Ranking of World Universities
(ARWU) in 2016, focusing on quality of scientific research and the number of Nobel Prizes.The
university also ranks 22nd in the world on the alternative Academic Ranking of World
Universities which excludes Nobel Prize and Fields Medal indicators. The 2010 report by
the Center for Measuring University Performance puts Duke at 6th in the nation.The 2011 Global
Employability Ranking as published by The New York Times surveyed hundreds of chief
executives and chairmen from around the world and asked them to select the best universities
from which they recruited. Duke placed 13th in the world and 9th in the country. Duke
also ranked 18th in the world and 8th in the country on Times Higher Education’s global
employability ranking in 2015.In 2013, Duke enrolled 139 National Merit Scholars, the
6th university in rank by number. Duke ranks 5th among national universities to have produced
Rhodes, Marshall, Truman, Goldwater, and Udall Scholars. As of 2012, Duke graduates have
received 25 Churchill Scholarships to the University of Cambridge. Only graduates of
Princeton and Harvard have received more Churchill awards. Kiplinger’s 50 Best Values in Private
Universities 2013–14 ranks Duke at 5th best overall after taking financial aid into consideration.According
to a study by Forbes, Duke ranks 11th among universities that have produced billionaires
and 1st among universities in the South. A survey by the Journal of Blacks in Higher
Education in 2002 ranked Duke as the #1 university in the country in regard to the integration
of African American students and faculty. According to a poll of recruiters conducted
by The Wall Street Journal, Duke ranks 2nd in terms of producing the best graduates who
have received either a marketing or liberal arts degree. In a corporate study carried
out by The New York Times, Duke’s graduates were shown to be among the most valued in
the world, and Forbes magazine ranked Duke 7th in the world on its list of ‘power factories’
in 2012. Duke was ranked 17th on Thomson Reuters’ list of the world’s most innovative universities
in 2015. The ranking graded universities based on patent volume and research output among
other factors. In 2015, NPR ranked Duke first on its list of “schools that make financial
sense”. Time magazine ranked Duke third on its list of the “Best 50 Colleges for African
Americans”. The ranking was based on representation, affordability and post-graduate earnings.
In 2016, Forbes ranked Duke sixth on its list of “Expensive Schools Worth Every Penny”.
Duke also ranked 5th in the U.S. on the Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education College
Ranking in 2017.====Graduate school rankings====
In U.S. News & World Report’s “America’s Best Graduate Schools 2018”, Duke’s medical school
ranked tied for 7th in research and 34th in primary care. The School of Law was ranked
10th in the 2018 rankings by the same publication, with Duke’s nursing school ranked 1st while
the Sanford School of Public Policy ranked tied for 13th overall for 2017.
Among business schools in the United States, the Fuqua School of Business was ranked tied
for 12th overall by U.S. News & World Report for 2018, while BusinessWeek ranked its full-time
MBA program 1st in the nation in 2014. The graduate program for the Pratt School of Engineering
was ranked 30th in the U.S. by U.S. News & World Report in its 2017 rankings.Times Higher Education
ranked the mathematics department tenth in the world in 2011. Duke’s graduate level specialties
that are ranked among the top ten in the nation include areas in the following departments:
biological sciences, medicine, nursing, engineering, law, business, English, history, physics,
statistics, public affairs, physician assistant (ranked #1), clinical psychology, political
science, and sociology. In 2007, Duke was ranked 22nd in the world by Wuhan University’s
Research Center for Chinese Science Evaluation. The ranking was based on journal article publication
counts and citation frequencies in over 11,000 academic journals from around the world. A
2012 study conducted by academic analytics ranks Duke fourth in the nation (behind only
Harvard, Stanford, and MIT) in terms of faculty productivity. In 2013, Duke Law ranked 6th
in Forbes magazine’s ranking of law schools whose graduates earn the highest starting
salaries. In 2013, Duke’s Fuqua School of Business was ranked 6th in terms of graduate
starting salaries by U.S. News & World Report. In the same year, a ranking compiled by the
University of Texas at Dallas ranked Fuqua 5th in the world based on the research productivity
of its faculty. The MEM (Masters in Engineering Management) program has been ranked 3rd in
the world by Eduniversal In 2013, Forbes ranked Duke 4th in the nation in terms of return
on investment (ROI). The ranking used alumni giving as a criterion to determine which private
colleges offer the best returns. In 2018, Above the Law ranked Duke Law 3rd in the nation
in its ranking of law schools based on employment outcomes. In 2013, Business Insider ranked
Duke’s Fuqua School of Business 5th in the world based on an extensive survey of hiring
professionals. In the same year, Forbes magazine ranked Fuqua 8th in the country based on return
on investment. In 2014, Duke was named the 20th best global research university according
to rankings published by U.S. News & World Report and the University Ranking by Academic
Performance published by Middle East Technical University. The U.S. News ranking was based
on 10 indicators that measure academic research performance and global reputations. The University
Ranking by Academic Performance uses citation data obtained from Thomson Reuters’ Web of
Science to rank universities based on research output.==Student life=====
Student body===Duke’s student body consists of 6,994 undergraduates
and 8,898 graduate and professional students (as of fall 2018).===Residential life===Duke requires its students to live on campus
for the first three years of undergraduate life, except for a small percentage of second-semester
juniors who are exempted by a lottery system. This requirement is justified by the administration
as an effort to help students connect more closely with one another and sustain a sense
of belonging within the Duke community. Thus, 85% of undergraduates live on campus. All
freshmen are housed in one of 14 residences on East Campus. These buildings range in occupancy
size from 50 (Epworth—the oldest residence hall, built in 1892 as “the Inn”) to 250 residents
(Trinity). Most of these are in the Georgian style typical of the East Campus architecture.
Although the newer residence halls differ in style, they still relate to East’s Georgian
heritage. Learning communities connect the residential component of East Campus with
students of similar academic and social interests. Similarly, students in FOCUS, a first-year
program that features courses clustered around a specific theme, live together in the same
residence hall as other students in their cluster.Sophomores, juniors and seniors can
choose to reside on either West or Central campuses, although the majority of undergraduate
seniors choose to live off campus. West Campus contains six quadrangles—the four along
“Main” West were built in 1930s, while two newer ones have since been added. Central
Campus provides housing for over 1,000 students in apartment buildings. All housing on West
and Central is organized into about 80 “houses”—sections of residence halls or clusters of apartments—to
which students can return each year. House residents create their house identities. There
are houses of unaffiliated students, as well as wellness houses and living-learning communities
that adopt a theme such as the arts or foreign languages. There are also numerous “selective
living groups” on campus for students wanting self-selected living arrangements. SLGs are
residential groups similar to fraternities or sororities, except they are generally co-ed
and unaffiliated with any national organization. Many of them also revolve around a particular
interest such as entrepreneurship, civic engagement or African-American or Asian culture. Fifteen
fraternities and nine sororities also are housed on campus, primarily on Central. Most
of the non-fraternity selective living groups are coeducational.===Greek and social life===About 30% of undergraduate men and about 40%
of undergraduate women at Duke are members of fraternities and sororities. Most of the
17 Interfraternity Council recognized fraternity chapters live in sections within the residence
halls. Starting in 2012, the nine (now ten) Panhellenic Association sorority chapters
decided to live in houses (clusters of apartments) on Central Campus. Not all sorority members
live with their chapters, though, as membership exceeds house space. Eight National Pan-Hellenic
Council (historically African American) fraternities and sororities also hold chapters at Duke.
The first historically African American Greek letter organization at Duke University was
the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., Omega Zeta Chapter, founded on April 12, 1974. In
addition, there are seven other fraternities and sororities that are a part of the Inter-Greek
Council, the multicultural Greek umbrella organization. Duke also has Selective Living
Groups, or SLGs, on campus for students seeking informal residential communities often built
around themes. SLGs are residential groups similar to fraternities or sororities, except
they are generally co-ed and unaffiliated with any national organizations. Fraternity
chapters and SLGs frequently host social events in their residential sections, which are often
open to non-members.In the late 1990s, a new keg policy was put into effect that requires
all student groups to purchase kegs through Duke Dining Services. According to administrators,
the rule change was intended as a way to ensure compliance with alcohol consumption laws as
well as to increase on-campus safety. Some students saw the administration’s increasingly
strict policies as an attempt to alter social life at Duke. As a result, off-campus parties
at rented houses became more frequent in subsequent years as a way to avoid Duke policies. Many
of these houses were situated in the midst of family neighborhoods, prompting residents
to complain about excessive noise and other violations. Police have responded by breaking
up parties at several houses, handing out citations, and occasionally arresting party-goers.
In the mid-to-late 2000s (decade), the administration made a concerted effort to help students re-establish
a robust, on-campus social life and has worked with numerous student groups, especially the
Duke University Union, to feature a wide array of events and activities. In March 2006, the
university purchased 15 houses in the Trinity Park area that Duke students had typically
rented and subsequently sold them to individual families in an effort to encourage renovations
to the properties and to reduce off-campus partying in the midst of residential neighborhoods.Duke
athletics, particularly men’s basketball, traditionally serves as a significant component
of student life. Duke’s students have been recognized as some of the most creative and
original fans in all of collegiate athletics. Students, often referred to as Cameron Crazies,
show their support of the men’s basketball team by “tenting” for home games against key
Atlantic Coast Conference rivals, especially University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
(UNC). Because tickets to all varsity sports are free to students, they line up for hours
before each game, often spending the night on the sidewalk. For a mid-February game against
UNC, some of the most eager students might even begin tenting before spring classes begin.
The total number of participating tents is capped at 100 (each tent can have up to 12
occupants), though interest is such that it could exceed that number if space permitted.
Tenting involves setting up and inhabiting a tent on the grass near Cameron Indoor Stadium,
an area known as Krzyzewskiville, or K-Ville for short. There are different categories
of tenting based on the length of time and number of people who must be in the tent.
At night, K-Ville often turns into the scene of a party or occasional concert. The men’s
basketball coach, Mike Krzyzewski, occasionally buys pizza for the inhabitants of the tent
village.===Activities=======Student organizations====More than 400 student clubs and organizations
operate on Duke’s campus. These include numerous student government, special interest, and
service organizations. Duke Student Government (DSG) charters and provides most of the funding
for other student groups and represents students’ interests when dealing with the administration.
The Duke University Union (DUU) is the school’s primary programming organization, serving
a center of social, cultural, intellectual and recreational life. Cultural groups are
provided funding directly from the university via the Multicultural Center as well as other
institutional funding sources. One of the most popular activities on campus is competing
in sports. Duke has 37 sports clubs, and several intramural teams that are officially recognized.
Performance groups such as Hoof ‘n’ Horn, the country’s second-oldest student-run musical
theater organization, a cappella groups, student bands, and theater organizations are also
prominent on campus. As of the 2016–2017 school year, there are seven a cappella groups
recognized by the Duke University A Cappella Council: Deja Blue, Lady Blue, Out of the
Blue, the Pitchforks, Rhythm & Blue, Something Borrowed Something Blue, and Speak of the
Devil. The Duke University mock trial team won the national championship in 2012. The
Duke University Student Dining Advisory Committee provides guidance to the administration on
issues regarding student dining, life, and restaurant choices.
Cultural groups on campus include the Asian Students Association, Blue Devils United (the
student lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender group), Black Student Alliance, Diya (South
Asian Association), Jewish Life at Duke, Mi Gente (Latino Student Association), International
Association/International Council, Muslim Student Association, Native American Student
Coalition, Newman Catholic Student Center, Languages Dorm, and Students of the Caribbean.====Civic engagement====More than 75 percent of Duke students pursue
service-learning opportunities in Durham and around the world through DukeEngage and other
programs that advance the university’s mission of “knowledge in service to society.” Launched
in 2007, DukeEngage provides full funding for select Duke undergraduates who wish to
pursue an immersive summer of service in partnership with a U.S. or international community. As
of summer 2013, more than 2,400 Duke students had volunteered through DukeEngage in 75 nations
on six continents. Duke students have created more than 30 service organizations in Durham
and the surrounding area. Examples include a weeklong camp for children of cancer patients
(Camp Kesem) and a group that promotes awareness about sexual health, rape prevention, alcohol
and drug use, and eating disorders (Healthy Devils). The Duke-Durham Neighborhood Partnership,
started by the Office of Community Affairs in 1996, attempts to address major concerns
of local residents and schools by leveraging university resources. Another community project,
“Scholarship with a Civic Mission”, is a joint program between the Hart Leadership Program
and the Kenan Institute for Ethics. Another program includes Project CHILD, a tutoring
program involving 80 first-year volunteers; and an after-school program for at-risk students
in Durham that was started with $2.25 million grant from the Kellogg Foundation in 2002.
Two prominent civic engagement pre-orientation programs also exist for incoming freshmen:
Project CHANGE and Project BUILD. Project CHANGE is a free weeklong program co-sponsored
by the Kenan Institute for Ethics and the Duke Women’s Center with the focus on ethical
leadership and social change in the Durham community; students are challenged in a variety
of ways and work closely with local non-profits. Project BUILD is a freshman volunteering group
that dedicates 3,300 hours of service to a variety of projects such as schools, Habitat
for Humanity, food banks, substance rehabilitation centers, homeless shelters. Some courses at
Duke incorporate service as part of the curriculum to augment material learned in class such
as in psychology or education courses (known as service learning courses).====Student media====The Chronicle, Duke’s independent undergraduate
daily newspaper, has been continually published since 1905 and now, along with its website,
has a readership of about 70,000. Its editors are responsible for selecting the term “Blue
Devil”. The newspaper won Best in Show in the tabloid division at the 2005 Associated
Collegiate Press National College Media Convention. Cable 13, established in 1976, is Duke’s student-run
television station. It is a popular activity for students interested in film production
and media. WXDU, licensed in 1983, is the university’s nationally recognized, noncommercial
FM radio station, operated by student and community volunteers.The Rival Duke is an
online-only, student run publication. The three sections, campus, culture, and current,
feature opinion and commentary.==Duke Alumni Association==
Duke Alumni Association (DAA) is an alumni association automatically available to all
Duke graduates. Benefits include alumni events, a global network of regional DAA alumni chapters,
educational and travel opportunities and communications such as The Blue Note, social media and Duke
Magazine. It provides access to the Duke Lemur Center, Nasher Museum of Art, Duke Rec Centers
and other campus facilities.==Duke Magazine==
Duke Magazine, an alumni magazine, is the university’s flagship vehicle for stories
about the Duke community. It has been published five-six times a year by the Office of Alumni
Affairs since 2002.==Athletics==The Duke University Athletic Association chairs
27 sports and more than 650 student-athletes. The Blue Devils are members of the National
Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I level, the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS)
and Atlantic Coast Conference. Men’s sports include baseball, basketball, cross country,
fencing, football, golf, lacrosse, soccer, swimming & diving, tennis, track & field and
wrestling; women’s sports include basketball, cross country, fencing, field hockey, golf,
lacrosse, rowing, soccer, softball, swimming & diving, tennis, track & field and volleyball. Duke’s teams have won 16 NCAA team national
championships—the women’s golf team has won six (1999, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2007 and
2014), the men’s basketball team has won five (1991, 1992, 2001, 2010, and 2015), the men’s
lacrosse team has won three (2010, 2013, and 2014), and the men’s soccer (1986) and women’s
tennis (2009) teams have won one each. Duke consistently ranks among the top in the National
Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics (NACDA) Directors’ Cup, an overall measure
of an institution’s athletic success. For Division I in 2015, Duke finished 20th overall
and fifth in the ACC. The Blue Devils have finished within the top 10 six times since
the inception of the Cup in 1993–94. Also, Athletic Director Kevin White earned multiple
awards in 2014, including the National Football Foundation’s John L. Toner Award.On the academic
front, nine Duke varsity athletics programs registered a perfect 1,000 score in the NCAA’s
multi-year Academic Progress Report (APR) released in April 2016.===Men’s basketball===Duke’s men’s basketball team is one of the
nation’s most successful basketball programs. The team’s success has been particularly outstanding
over the past 30 years under coach Mike Krzyzewski (often simply called “Coach K”). The Blue
Devils are the only team to win five national championships since the NCAA Tournament field
was expanded to 64 teams in 1985, 11 Final Fours in the past 25 years, and eight of nine
ACC tournament championships from 1999 to 2006. Duke’s 2017 NCAA tournament appearance
ended in an upset to the University of South Carolina. Coach K has also coached the USA
men’s national basketball team since 2006 and led the team to Olympic golds in 2008,
2012, and 2016. His teams also won World Championship gold in 2010 and 2014. Overall, 32 Duke players
have been selected in the first round of the NBA Draft in the Coach K era. More than 50
Duke players have been selected in the NBA Draft.===Football===The Blue Devils have won seven ACC Football
Championships, have had ten players honored as ACC Player of the Year (the most in the
ACC), and have had three Pro Football Hall of Famers come through the program (second
in the ACC to only Miami’s four). The Blue Devils have produced 11 College Football Hall
of Famers, which is tied for the 2nd most in the ACC. Duke has also won 18 total conference
championships (7 ACC, 9 Southern Conference, and 1 Big Five Conference). That total is
tied with Clemson for the highest in the ACC.The most famous Duke football season came in 1938,
when Wallace Wade coached the “Iron Dukes” that shut out all regular season opponents;
only three teams in history can claim such a feat. That same year, Duke made their first
Rose Bowl appearance, where they lost 7–3 when USC scored a touchdown in the final minute
of the game. Wade’s Blue Devils lost another Rose Bowl to Oregon State in 1942, this one
held at Duke’s home stadium due to the attack on Pearl Harbor, which resulted in the fear
that a large gathering on the West Coast might be in range of Japanese aircraft carriers.
The football program proved successful in the 1950s and 1960s, winning six of the first
ten ACC football championships from 1953 to 1962 under coach Bill Murray; the Blue Devils
would not win the ACC championship again until 1989 under coach Steve Spurrier.David Cutcliffe
was brought in prior to the 2008 season, and amassed more wins in his first season than
the previous three years combined. The 2009 team won 5 of 12 games, and was eliminated
from bowl contention in the next-to-last game of the season. Mike MacIntyre, the defensive
coordinator, was named 2009 Assistant Coach of the Year by the American Football Coaches
Association (AFCA).While the football team has struggled at times on the field, the graduation
rate of its players is consistently among the highest among Division I FBS schools.
Duke’s high graduation rates have earned it more AFCA Academic Achievement Awards than
any other institution.For the 2014 season, Duke finished 9–3, 5–3 (ACC) and earned
a trip to the Sun Bowl, where the Blue Devils lost to the Pac-12’s Arizona State 36–31.
In 2015, the Detroit Lions drafted Duke offensive guard Laken Tomlinson and the Washington Redskins
drafted wide receiver Jamison Crowder.===Track and field===
In 2003 Norm Ogilvie was promoted to Director of Track and Field, and has led athletes to
over 60 individual ACC championships, and 81 All-America selections, along with most
of the track and field records being broken during his tenure. A new facility, the Morris
Williams Track and Field Stadium, opened in 2015.==Notable people==Duke’s active alumni base of more than 145,000
devote themselves to the university through organizations and events such as the annual
Reunion Weekend and Homecoming. There are 75 Duke clubs in the U.S. and 38 such international
clubs. For the 2008–09 fiscal year, Duke tied for third in alumni giving rate among
U.S. colleges and universities according to U.S. News & World Report. Based on statistics
compiled by PayScale in 2011, Duke alumni rank seventh in mid-career median salary among
all U.S. colleges and universities. A number of alumni have made significant contributions
in the fields of government, law, science, academia, business, arts, journalism, and
athletics, among others.===Government===
Richard Nixon, 37th President of the United States graduated with a law degree in 1937.
Former U.S. Senator and Secretary of Transportation Elizabeth Dole, 33rd President of Chile Ricardo
Lagos, former U.S. Secretary of Commerce Juanita M. Kreps, congressman and three-time presidential
candidate Ron Paul, U.S. Secretary of Veterans Affairs and former Chief of Staff of the United
States Army Eric Shinseki, and the first United States Chief Performance Officer Jeffrey Zients
and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Martin Dempsey are among the most notable
alumni with involvement in politics and government. Sheikha Al-Mayassa bint Hamad bin Khalifa
Al-Thani Chairperson of Qatar Museum Authority.===Academia and research===
Duke graduates who have won the Nobel Prize in Physics include Hans Dehmelt for his development
of the ion trap technique, Robert Richardson for his discovery of superfluidity in helium-3,
and Charles Townes for his work on quantum electronics. Other alumni in research and
academia include Turing Award winners Fred Brooks, Edmund M. Clarke and John Cocke, Templeton
Prize winning physicist and religion scholar Ian Barbour, MacArthur Award recipient Paul
Farmer, and former Dean of the Graduate School at Princeton Theodore Ziolkowski.
Duke professor Robert J. Lefkowitz shared the 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry and Ingrid
Daubechies, currently a James B. Duke professor of mathematics, served as the first woman
president of the International Mathematical Union and is known for pioneering work on
Wavelets.===Journalism===
Prominent journalists include talk show host Charlie Rose, The Washington Post sports writer
John Feinstein, Chief Washington Correspondent for CNBC and The Wall Street Journal writer
John Harwood, CBS News President Sean McManus, chief legal correspondent for Good Morning
America Dan Abrams, and CNN anchor and senior correspondent for The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer
Judy Woodruff. Basketball analysts and commentators include Jay Bilas, Mike Gminski, Jim Spanarkel,
and Jay Williams. Magazine editors include Rik Kirkland of Fortune and Clay Felker, founder
of New York Magazine.===Literature===
In the area of literature, William Styron won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1968
for his novel The Confessions of Nat Turner and is well known for his 1979 novel Sophie’s
Choice. Anne Tyler also received the Pulitzer Prize for her 1988 novel Breathing Lessons.
Additionally, Elizabeth A. Fenn won the Pulitzer Prize for History in 2015. Other acclaimed
writers include John W. Campbell and Reynolds Price.
In the visual arts realm, Annabeth Gish (actress in the X-Files and The West Wing), Ken Jeong
(actor in The Hangover and Community), Retta (actress and comedian), Jared Harris (actor
in Mad Men), Randall Wallace (screenwriter, producer, and director, Braveheart, Pearl
Harbor, We Were Soldiers), Mike Posner (singer, songwriter, and producer, “Cooler Than Me”,
“Please Don’t Go”, “I Took A Pill in Ibiza”), David Hudgins (television writer and producer,
Everwood, Friday Night Lights) and Robert Yeoman (cinematographer, The Grand Budapest
Hotel) headline the list.===Business===
The current or recent president, CEO, or chairman of each of the following Fortune 500 companies
is a Duke alumnus: Apple (Tim Cook), BB&T (John A. Allison IV), Boston Scientific Corporation
(Peter Nicholas), Chesapeake Energy (Aubrey McClendon), Cisco Systems (John Chambers),
General Motors (Rick Wagoner), JPMorgan Chase (Steven Black), Medtronic (William A. Hawkins),
Morgan Stanley (John J. Mack), Norfolk Southern (David R. Goode), Northwest Airlines (Gary
L. Wilson), PepsiCo (Karl von der Heyden), Procter & Gamble (David S. Taylor), Pfizer
(Edmund T. Pratt, Jr.), The Bank of New York Mellon (Gerald Hassell), and Wachovia (Robert
K. Steel). Kevin Martin was Chairman of the FCC, and Rex Adams serves as the Chairman
of PBS. Another alumna, Melinda Gates, is the co-founder of the $31.9 billion Bill & Melinda
Gates Foundation, the nation’s wealthiest charitable foundation. Some startups founded
by Duke alumni include Box (Dylan Smith), Yext (Howard Lerman), and Coinbase (Fred Ehrsam).===Athletics===
Management and ownership of professional athletic franchises include Adam Silver (NBA commissioner),
John P. Angelos (Executive Vice President of the Baltimore Orioles), Aubrey McClendon
(former part owner of the Oklahoma City Thunder), John Canning, Jr. (co-owner of Milwaukee Brewers),
Danny Ferry (former general manager of the Cleveland Cavaliers), Stephen Pagliuca (co-owner
of Boston Celtics), and Jeffrey Vinik (owner of the Tampa Bay Lightning).
Several athletes have become stars at the professional level, especially in basketball’s
NBA. Art Heyman, Shane Battier, Corey Maggette, Elton Brand, Carlos Boozer, Luol Deng, Christian
Laettner, Bobby Hurley, Grant Hill, Kyrie Irving and J. J. Redick are among the most
famous. Offensive linesman Lennie Friedman played for four National Football League teams,
and Ed Newman was an All-Pro offensive lineman.Men’s basketball coach Mike Krzyzewski led the US
men’s team to three gold medals (2008, 2012, 2016), and Abigail Johnston won a silver medal
in synchronized diving at the 2012 Olympic Games while an undergraduate at Duke and competed
in the 2016 Olympic Games while attending Duke Medical School.==See also==List of colleges and universities in North
Carolina