California State University

California State University

October 12, 2019 0 By Stanley Isaacs


The California State University is a
public university system in California. Composed of 23 campuses and eight
off-campus centers enrolling 460,200 students with 24,405 faculty and 23,012
staff, CSU is the largest four-year public university system in the United
States. It is one of three public higher education systems in the state, with the
other two being the University of California system and the California
Community Colleges System. The CSU System is incorporated as The Trustees
of the California State University. The California State University system
headquarters are at 401 Golden Shore in Long Beach, California.
The California State University was created in 1960 under the California
Master Plan for Higher Education, and it is a direct descendant of the system of
California State Normal Schools. With nearly 100,000 graduates annually, the
CSU is the country’s greatest producer of bachelor’s degrees. The university
system collectively sustains more than 150,000 jobs within the state, and its
related expenditures reach more than $17 billion annually.
In the 2011-12 academic year, CSU awarded 52 percent of newly issued
California teaching credentials, 47 percent of the state’s engineering
degrees, 28 percent of the state’s information technology bachelor’s
degrees, and it had more graduates in business, agriculture, communication
studies, health, education, and public administration than all other
universities and colleges in California combined. Altogether, about half of the
bachelor’s degrees, one-third of the master’s degrees, and nearly two percent
of the doctoral degrees awarded annually in California are from the CSU.
Furthermore, the CSU is one of the top U.S. producers of graduates who move on
to earn their Ph.D. degrees in a related field. The CSU has a total of 17 AACSB
accredited graduate business schools which is over twice as many as any other
collegiate system. Since 1961, nearly three million alumni have received their
bachelor’s, master’s, or doctoral degrees from the CSU system. CSU offers
more than 1,800 degree programs in some 240 subject areas. In Fall of 2015,
9,282 of CSU’s 24,405 faculty were tenured or on the tenure track.
History Today’s California State University
system is the direct descendant of the Minns Evening Normal School, a normal
school in San Francisco that educated the city’s future teachers in
association with the high school system. The school was taken over by the state
in 1862 and moved to San Jose and renamed the California State Normal
School; it eventually evolved into San Jose State University. A southern branch
of the California State Normal School was created in Los Angeles in 1882.
In 1887, the California legislature dropped the word “California” from the
name of the San Jose and Los Angeles schools, renaming them “State Normal
Schools.” Later Chico, San Diego, and other schools became part of the State
Normal School system. In 1919, the State Normal School at Los Angeles became the
Southern Branch of the University of California; it is now the University of
California at Los Angeles. In 1921, the State Normal Schools were renamed State
Teachers Colleges. By this time most of the campuses started to become
identified by their city names plus the word “state”.
In 1935, the State Teachers Colleges were upgraded to State Colleges, with a
full four-year liberal arts curriculum. They were administered by the California
State Department of Education in Sacramento. The Donahoe Higher Education
Act of 1960 gave the system greater autonomy from the State of California.
The postwar period brought a great expansion in the number of colleges in
the system. Campuses in Los Angeles, Sacramento, and Long Beach were added
from 1947 through 1949. Next, seven more schools were authorized to be
established between 1957 and 1960. Six more campuses joined the system after
the establishment of the Donohoe Higher Education Act in 1960 bringing the total
number to 23. In 1972, the system became The
California State University and Colleges, and all of the campuses were
renamed with the words “California State University” in their names. Former San
Diego State University student body president Calvin Robinson wrote the
bill, which was signed into law by Governor Ronald Reagan, that allowed
every California State University the option to revert the schools back to
their earlier names: San Jose State, San Diego State, San Francisco State, etc.
In 1982, the CSU system dropped the word “colleges” from its name.
Today the campuses of the CSU include comprehensive universities and
polytechnic universities along with the only maritime academy in the western
United States – one that receives aid from the U.S. Maritime Administration.
Governance The governance structure of the
California State University is largely determined by state law. The California
State University is ultimately administered by the 25 member Board of
Trustees of the California State University. The Trustees appoint the
Chancellor of the California State University, who is the chief executive
officer of the system, and the Presidents of each campus, who are the
chief executive officers of their respective campuses.
The Academic Senate of the California State University, made up of elected
representatives of the faculty from each campus, recommends academic policy to
the Board of Trustees through the Chancellor.
=Board of Trustees=The California State University is
administered by the 25 member Board of Trustees. Regulations of the BOT are
codified in Title 5 of the California Code of Regulations. The BOT is composed
of: 16 members that are appointed by the
Governor of California with the consent of the Senate
two students from the California State University appointed by the Governor
a tenured faculty member appointed by the Governor selected from a list of
names from the Academic Senate a representative of the alumni
associations of the state university selected for a two-year term by the
alumni council of the California State University
5 ex officio members: Governor
Lieutenant Governor Speaker of the Assembly
State Superintendent of Public Instruction
the CSU Chancellor Current members
Ex officio trustees: Jerry Brown, Governor of California
Gavin Newsom, Lieutenant Governor of California
Toni Atkins, Speaker of the Assembly Tom Torlakson, State Superintendent of
Public Instruction Timothy P. White, CSU Chancellor
Appointed trustees: Roberta Achtenberg, Bernadette Cheyne, Debra S. Farar,
Kenneth Fong, Margaret Fortune, Lupe Garcia, Steven Glazer, William Hauck,
Bob Linscheid, Peter Mehas, Henry Mendoza, Lou Monville, Hugo Morales,
James “Larry” Norton, and Glen Toney. Student Trustees: Cipriano Vargas and
Talar Alexanian.=Chancellor=
The position of the Chancellor is declared by statute, and is defined by
resolutions of the BOT. The delegation of authority from the BOT to the
Chancellor has historically been controlled by a BOT resolution titled
“Statement of General Principles in the Delegation of Authority and
Responsibility” of August 4, 1961, and is now controlled by the Standing Orders
of the Board of Trustees of the California State University. The
Chancellor is the chief executive officer, and all Presidents report
directly to the Chancellor. Chancellors
Buell Gallagher Glenn S. Dumke
W. Ann Reynolds Ellis E. McCune [Acting]
Barry Munitz Charles B. Reed
Timothy P. White=Student government=
All 23 campuses have mandatory student body organizations with mandatory fees,
all with the “Associated Students” moniker, and are all members of the
California State Student Association. California Education Code § 89300 allows
for the creation of student body organizations at any state university
for the purpose of providing essential activities closely related to, but not
normally included as a part of, the regular instructional program. A vote
approved by two-thirds of all students causes the Trustees to fix a membership
fee required of all regular, limited, and special session students attending
the university such that all fee increases must be approved by the
Trustees and a referendum approved by a majority of voters. Mandatory fee
elections are called by the president of the university, and the membership fees
are fixed by the Chancellor. All fees are collected by the university at the
time of registration except where a student loan or grant from a recognized
training program or student aid program has been delayed and there is reasonable
proof that the funds will be forthcoming. The Gloria Romero Open
Meetings Act of 2000 mandates that the legislative body of a student body
organization conduct its business in public meetings.
Student body organization funds obtained from mandatory fees may be expended for:
Programs of cultural and educational enrichment and community service.
Recreational and social activities. Support of student unions.
Scholarships, stipends, and grants-in-aid for only currently
admitted students. Tutorial programs.
Athletic programs, both intramural and intercollegiate.
Student publications. Assistance to recognized student
organizations. Student travel insurance.
Administration of student fee program. Student government-scholarship stipends,
grants-in-aid, and reimbursements to student officers for service to student
government. Before such scholarship stipends, grants-in-aid, and
reimbursements are established by a student body association, the principle
of establishing such payments shall be approved by a student referendum.
Student employment to provide payment for services in connection with the
general administration of student fee. Augmentation of counseling services,
including draft information, to be performed by the campus. Such counseling
may also include counseling on legal matters to the extent of helping the
student to determine whether he should retain legal counsel, and of referring
him to legal counsel through a bar association, legal aid foundation or
similar body. Transportation services.
Child day care centers for children of students and employees of the campus.
Augmentation of campus health services. Additional programs may be added by
appropriate amendment to this section by the Board.
Impact of the CSU The CSU confers over 70,000 degrees each
year, awarding 46% of the state’s bachelor’s degrees and 32% of the
state’s master’s degrees. The entire 23 campus system sustains nearly 150,000
jobs statewide, generating nearly $1 billion in tax revenue. Total CSU
related-expenditures equate to nearly $70 billion,
The CSU contributes a strong showing in today’s in-demand fields, producing 62%
of the bachelor’s degrees awarded in agriculture, 54% in business, 44% in
health and medicine, 64% in hospitality and tourism, 45% in engineering, and 44%
of those in media, culture and design. In fact the CSU is the state’s largest
source of educators, more than half of the state’s newly credentialed teachers
are from the CSU, expanding the state’s rank of teachers by nearly 12,500 per
year. Over the last 10 years, the CSU has
significantly enhanced programs towards the underserved. 56% of bachelor’s
degrees granted to Latinos in the state are from the CSU, while 60% of
bachelor’s awarded to Filipinos were from the CSU. In the Fall of 2008, 42%
of incoming students were from California Community Colleges.
Enrollment Compensation & hiring
During the recession years, the CSU lost 1/3 of its revenue – roughly $1 billion
– and 4,000 employees. With the state’s reinvestment in higher education, the
CSU is restoring its employee ranks and currently employs a record number of
instructional faculty. Between 2010 and 2015, the number of CSU faculty
increased by 3,500, but the number of tenure track faculty declined by 150,
leaving the CSU system with its lowest percentage of tenure track faculty in
the schools’ history. In the last two years through the state’s reinvestment,
the CSU has directed $129.6 million to enhance employee compensation. Another
$65.5 million in slated in the 2015-16 operating budget for employee
compensation. However, according to the California Faculty Association report,
“Race to the Bottom: CSU’s 10-Year Failure to Fund Its Core Mission”,
written in 2015, “Over the past decade— in good times and bad, whether state
funding was up or down, when tuition was raised and when it wasn’t— CSU
expenditures on faculty salaries have remained essentially flat… When
compared to other university systems around the country, and to every
education segment in California, the CSU stands out for its unparalleled failure
to improve faculty salaries or even to protect them from the ravages of
inflation.” In addition, the CSU offers premium health/welfare benefits to
part-time and full-time employees who meet eligibility requirements.
(For data definitions and additional statistics, please see the CSU Employee
Profile at www.calstate.eduemployee-profile/.)
Innovation in the CSU The research and creative activity of
CSU faculty enhances student learning by providing engagement in deep-learning
opportunities that promote graduation success and provide practical skills
that increase competitiveness for employment in today’s job market.
Research funding enables the CSU to recruit and retain top-tier scholars,
who with their students, create new knowledge and stimulate innovation and
economic growth. Through work in field settings, laboratories, clinics and
studios, our faculty and students are advancing California’s prosperity.
CSU counts among its faculty world-renowned scholars, musicians and
artists who have been honored by their peers, national academic societies and
at the White House. Over 9,000 CSU faculty provided
innovations and solutions to complex California regional and national
problems. Faculty research grants generate $538.9
million in external funding to provide students with challenging active
learning environments that foster entrepreneurship and innovation.
Campuses enrollment and overview The CSU is composed of the following 23
campuses listed here by order of the year founded:
* U.S. News & World Report ranks San Diego State University in the National
Universities category as it offers Ph.D programs. The other universities in the
California State University system are ranked in the Regional Universities
category as they do not offer Ph.D programs. SDSU’s total enrollment also
includes its sister campus, San Diego State University Imperial Valley Campus.
** Cal Maritime only awards undergraduate degrees and therefore is
ranked separately from the other campuses of the California State
University. It is ranked in the “Regional Colleges” category.
*** Transitioning from NAIA to NCAA Division II, effective September 2014.
Gallery=Off campus branches=
A handful of universities have off campus branches that make education
accessible in a large state. Unlike the typical university extension courses,
they are degree-granting and students have the same status as other California
State University students. The newest campus, the California State University,
Channel Islands, was formerly an off-campus branch of CSU Northridge.
Riverside County and Contra Costa County, which have three million
residents between them, have lobbied for their off-campus branches to be
free-standing California State University campuses. The total
enrollment for all branches of the C.S.U. system in Fall 2005 was 9,163
students, the equivalent of 2.2 percent of the systemwide enrollment. The
following are schools and their respective off campus branches:
California State University, Bakersfield Antelope Valley
California State University, Chico Redding
California State University, Fullerton Irvine
Garden Grove California State University, East Bay
Concord Oakland
California State University, Fresno Lancaster
California State University, San Bernardino
Palm Desert California State University, San Marcos
Southwest Riverside County San Diego State University
Imperial Valley San Francisco State University
Cañada College Downtown Campus
California State University, Stanislaus Stockton, California
Sonoma State University Ukiah, California
=Laboratories and observatories=Research facilities owned and operated
by units of the CSU: Desert Studies Center
Research consortium and field site managed by California State University,
Fullerton Moss Landing Marine Laboratories
Independent degree-granting campus managed by San Jose State University
Oceanographic laboratory located in the Monterey Bay area
Murillo Family Observatory Newest research observatory in the San
Bernardino Metropolitan Area and the CSU system. It is located in and managed by
California State University, San Bernardino.
Southern California Marine Institute Oceanographic laboratory in the Los
Angeles Basin Mount Laguna Observatory
Astronomical observatory part of the Astronomy Department of San Diego State
University T.S. Golden Bear
The training ship of the California Maritime Academy
=Former campuses=Former campuses of the C.S.U. system:
Los Angeles State Normal School, founded 1882, became the University of
California at Los Angeles by state law in 1919.
Santa Barbara State College, founded 1909, became the University of
California at Santa Barbara by state law in 1944.
Differences between the CSU and UC systems
Both university systems are California publicly funded higher education
institutions. Despite having fewer students, some individual UC campuses,
as a result of their research emphasis and medical centers, have larger budgets
than the entire CSU system. CSU’s Chancellor, Dr. Charles B. Reed, pointed
out when delivering his Pullias Lecture at USC, that California was big enough
to afford two world-class systems of public higher education, one that
supports research and one that supports teaching. However, student per capita
spending is stretched far thinner at CSU, and that, together with the lack of
a research mission or independent doctoral programs under the California
Master Plan, leads to the widespread general perception in American higher
education that the CSU system is less prestigious than the UC system. Kevin
Starr, the seventh State Librarian of California, summed up this perception by
describing CSU in his published history of California in the 1990s as “in so
many ways the Rodney Dangerfield of public higher education.”
For many of the CSU system’s early formative years, the more powerful UC
system was able to delay or prevent the CSU schools from gaining the right to
grant certain types of degrees. At present, certain types of doctorates are
the only degree types that CSU schools do not grant. Thus, while similar
campuses in other states eventually grew into research-oriented state
universities, the UC system’s powerful research university monopoly has
successfully prevented the CSU as a system from experiencing a similar
development, although some individual CSU campuses have indeed become more
research-oriented. According to the California Master Plan
for Higher Education, both university systems may confer Bachelors or Master’s
degrees as well as professional certifications, however only the
University of California has the authority to issue Ph.D degrees and
professional degrees in the fields of law, medicine, veterinary, and
dentistry. As a result of recent legislation, the California State
University may now offer the Ed.D and DPT degrees to its graduate students.
Additionally, the California State University offers Ph.D degrees and some
professional doctorates as a “joint degree” in combination with other
institutions of higher education, including “joint degrees” with the
University of California and accredited private universities. This is why, for
instance, San Diego State can qualify as a “Research University with high
research activity” by offering some 22 doctoral degrees.
There are 23 CSU campuses and 10 UC campuses representing approximately
437,000 and 237,000 students respectively. The cost of CSU tuition is
approximately half that of UC. Thus, the CSU system has been referred to by
former California State University authorities as “The People’s
University.” CSU and UC use the terms “president” and
“chancellor” internally in exactly opposite ways: At CSU, the campuses are
headed by “presidents” who report to a systemwide “chancellor”; but at UC, they
are headed by “chancellors” who report to a systemwide “president”.
CSU has traditionally been more accommodating to the older student than
UC, by offering more degree programs in the evenings and, more recently, online.
In addition, CSU schools, especially in more urban areas, have traditionally
catered to the commuter, enrolling most of its students from the surrounding
area. This has changed as CSU schools increase enrollment and some of the more
prestigious urban campuses attract a wider demographic.
Traditionally, the UC campuses run a quarter system while most of the CSU
campuses operate on a semester system, with the exception of six campuses. It
was announced recently that the remaining six campuses in the CSU, Cal
State East Bay, Cal State San Bernardino, CSULA, CSU Bakersfield, Cal
Poly SLO, and Cal Poly Pomona will all be switching into the semester system by
the end of the decade. This was part of a comprehensive study conducted by the
CSU.=Admission standards=
Historically the requirements for admission to the CSU have been less
stringent than the UC system. The CSU attempts to accept applicants from the
top one-third of California high school graduates. In contrast, the UC attempts
to accept the top one-eighth. In an effort to maintain a 60/40 ratio of
upper division students to lower division students and to encourage
students to attend a California community college first, both university
systems give priority to California community college transfer students.
However, the following 16 CSU campuses use higher standards than the basic
admission standards due to the number of qualified students who apply which makes
admissions at these schools more competitive:
Furthermore, three California State University campuses are fully impacted
for both freshmen and transfers, meaning in addition to admission into the
school, admission into all majors is also impacted. The three campuses that
are fully impacted are: Long Beach, San Diego, and Cal Poly San Luis Obispo.
=Campus naming conventions=The UC system follows a consistent style
in the naming of campuses, using the words “University of California”
followed by the name of its declared home city, with a comma as the
separator. Most CSU campuses follow a similar pattern, though several are
named only for their home city or county, such as San Francisco State
University, San Jose State University, San Diego State University, or Sonoma
State University. Some of the colleges follow neither pattern. California
Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo and California State Polytechnic
University, Pomona use the word “polytechnic” in both their full names.
They also use the abbreviated forms “Cal Poly San Luis Obispo” and “Cal Poly
Pomona” respectively, and the San Luis Obispo campus brands its athletic
program as “Cal Poly” with no city. In addition, the California Maritime
Academy is the only campus whose official name does not refer to its
location in California. Both Channel Islands and San Marcos campuses official
names do not include a comma, unlike the typical style of the CSU naming
convention, and instead follow California State University San Marcos,
or Channel Islands. Some critics, including Donald Gerth, have claimed
that the weak California State University identity has contributed to
the CSU’s perceived lack of prestige when compared to the University of
California. Fall 2014 enrolled freshmen profile
=Impacted campuses=An impacted campus or major is one which
has more CSU-qualified students than capacity permits. As of 2012, 16 out of
the 23 campuses are impacted including Chico, Fresno, Fullerton, Humboldt, Long
Beach, Los Angeles, Northridge, Pomona, San Bernardino, Sacramento, San Diego,
San Francisco, San Jose, Sonoma, San Marcos, and San Luis Obispo. Some
programs at other campuses are similarly impacted. Despite this, CSU
undergraduate admissions are quantitatively based and generally do
not include items such as personal statements, SAT Subject Test scores,
letters of recommendation, or portfolios. In addition, there is
geographic preference given to those residing within the commuting areas of
the colleges.=Special admissions process for the
California Maritime Academy=The Maritime Academy uses a different
admissions process from other CSU schools. Because of the nature of its
programs, the Maritime Academy requires all applicants to pass a standard
physical examination prior to enrollment.
Research and academics=AAU, AASCU and APLU=
The University of California and most of its campuses are members of the
Association of American Universities and the Association of Public and Land-grant
Universities. The California State University and most
of its campuses are members of APLU and the American Association of State
Colleges and Universities.=ABET=
ABET, Inc.,, accredits post-secondary degree programs in applied science,
computing, engineering, and technology. It is intended to certify the quality of
these programs. The California State University has 17 ABET-accredited
engineering colleges throughout California.
Cal Poly Pomona College of Engineering Cal Poly San Luis Obispo College of
Engineering California Maritime Academy College of
Engineering California State University, Chico
College of Engineering California State University, Dominguez
Hills College of Engineering California State University, East Bay
College of Engineering California State University, Fresno,
Lyles College of Engineering California State University, Fullerton
College of Engineering California State University, Long Beach
College of Engineering California State University, Los Angeles
College of Engineering California State University, Northridge
College of Engineering California State University, Sacramento
College of Engineering California State University, San
Bernardino College of Engineering Humboldt State University College of
Engineering San Diego State University College of
Engineering San Francisco State University College
of Engineering San Jose State University College of
Engineering=CENIC=
The CSU is a founding and charter member of CENIC, the Corporation for Education
Network Initiatives in California, the nonprofit organization which provides
extremely high-performance Internet-based networking to
California’s K-20 research and education community.
=Statewide university programs=Agricultural Research Initiative
A comprehensive applied agricultural and environmental research program joining
the CSU’s four colleges of agriculture and the state’s agriculture and natural
resources industries and allied business communities.
Cal Poly Pomona Cal Poly San Luis Obispo
Chico State Fresno State
Biotechnology The California State University Program
for Education and Research in Biotechnology mission is to develop a
professional biotechnology workforce. CSUPERB provides grant funding,
organizes an annual symposium, sponsors industry-responsive curriculum, and
serves as a liaison for the CSU with government, philanthropic, educational,
and biotechnology industry partners. The program involves students and faculty
from Life, Physical, Computer and Clinical Science, Engineering,
Agriculture, Math and Business departments at all 23 CSU campuses.
Hospitality Management The Hospitality Management Education
Initiative was formed in 2008 to address the shortage of hospitality leaders in
California. HMEI is a collaboration between the 14 CSU campuses that have
hospitality-related degrees and industry executives. CSU awarded 95% of
hospitality bachelor’s degrees in the state in 2011.
Nursing Headquartered and administered at the
Dominguez Hills campus, the CSU Statewide Nursing Program offers
registered nurses courses available throughout California that lead to
Bachelors’, Masters’ of Science, and a Doctorate degree in Nursing. The
campuses that award a Doctorate in Nursing Practice are:
Fresno State Cal State Fullerton
Cal State Los Angeles Cal State Long Beach
San Jose State Online education and concurrent
enrollment Beginning in 2013, the CSU made a
radical change in the way it delivered online education. The university
approved more than 30 courses for system-wide consumption, meaning any
student attending one of the 23 campuses will be able to enroll in an online
course offered at another campus, concurrently. The new online education
delivery method is part of $17 million additional funding from the state to
improve online education, and ultimately improve graduation rates and access to
“bottleneck courses” across the 23 campuses. Courses offered include
biology, business finance, chemistry, and microeconomics.
Pre-doctoral program California Pre-Doctoral Program is
designed to increase the pool of potential faculty by supporting the
doctoral aspirations of California State University students who have experienced
economic and educational disadvantages. The Chancellor’s Doctoral Incentive
Program provides financial and other assistance to individuals pursuing
doctoral degrees. The program seeks to provide loans to doctoral students who
are interested in applying and competing for California State University
instructional faculty positions after completion of the doctoral degree.
Professional science master’s degree The CSU intends to expand its
post-graduate education focus to establish and encourage Professional
Science master’s degree programs using the Sloan model.
See also California State Employees Association
California State University Emeritus and Retired Faculty Association
California State University Police Department
Colleges and universities List of colleges and universities in
California References
External links Official website